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Home > VIP MEMBERS ONLY AREA > TERRORISM

Beirut Explosion August 5th 2020 dream from July 31st 2020  Play album slideshow


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Donald J. Trump dies at 6:47 AM EST September 13th, 2020 due to heart failure, a product of his own idea? vet drug - no test (nothing new here, and remember this is just from my dream...no secret service again please)  Play album slideshow


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Wuhan coronavirus 2019 and 2020 web searches tea cures  Play album slideshow


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Most viewed dreams - TERRORISM
Psychic_Prediction_CDC_Cornovirus_leader_Trump_Pence_are_hiding_the_truth_real_number_of_tests_administered_lying_about_national_cases_over_5_million_infections_WhatWeKnow.jpg
Psychic Prediction CDC Cornovirus leader Trump Pence are hiding the truth real number of tests administered lying about national cases over 5 million infections WhatWeKnow9 views todayCoronavirus miracle cure tea this homemade recipe DIY coronavirus tea alternative treatment recipe might really work and it's free Psychic Prediction CDC Cornovirus leader Trump Pence are hiding the truth real number of tests administered lying about national cases over 5 million infections WhatWeKnow

This is a tea to prevent and cure the current coronavirus in the world today...this what I think it says:

Take 5 cups of reverse osmosis water with a PPM of less than 20 ppm, boil for 5 minutes then add 1/2 cup of dried Honeysuckle Flowers, 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar, 1/4 cup of dried Huang Lian and 1 tablespoon of regular honey (any type). Boil rapidly until half the liquid is gone, drink hot 3 times a day. (and as always, never take any medical advice from me or anyone without checking with a doctor first)
How COVID-19 Spreads
中文 | Español
Current understanding about how the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads is largely based on what is known about similar coronaviruses. COVID-19 is a new disease and there is more to learn about how it spreads, the severity of illness it causes, and to what extent it may spread in the United States.

Person-to-person spread
The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.

Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet).
Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.

Spread from contact with infected surfaces or objects
It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.

Can someone spread the virus without being sick?
People are thought to be most contagious when they are most symptomatic (the sickest).
Some spread might be possible before people show symptoms; there have been reports of this occurring with this new coronavirus, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.
How easily does the virus spread?
How easily a virus spreads from person-to-person can vary. Some viruses are highly contagious (spread easily), like measles, while other viruses do not spread as easily. Another factor is whether the spread is sustained.

The virus that causes COVID-19 seems to be spreading easily and sustainably in the community (“community spread”) in some affected geographic areas. Community spread means people have been infected with the virus in an area, including some who are not sure how or where they became infected.



v常见问题解答
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相关页

本页内容

疾病基础知识
预防
医疗信息
公共健康响应和当前情况
旅行
COVID-19 和动物
关于其他常见问题解答:

旅行
面向医疗保健专业人员的信息
呼吸器及其使用
诊断检测板和病毒的实验室申请
孕妇和 COVID-19
医疗保健感染预防和控制


请注意,某些链接指向仅以英文显示的页面。

疾病基础知识

Q:新型冠状病毒是什么?

A:新型冠状病毒 (CoV) 是一种之前尚未确定新的冠状病毒。导致冠状病毒疾病 2019 (COVID-19) 的病毒不同于在人类中普遍传播的冠状病毒 ,引起轻度疾病,如普通感冒。

冠状病毒 229E、NL63、OC43 或 HKU1 的诊断与 COVID-19 诊断不同。这些是不同的病毒,2019-nCoV 患者将接受不同于常见冠状病毒诊断的患者的评估和护理。

Q:为什么现在引起疫情的该疾病被称为冠状病毒疾病 2019,COVID-19?

A:2020 年 2 月 11 日,世界卫生组织宣布了导致最早在中国武汉发现的 2019 新型冠状病毒疫情疾病的官方正式名称。该疾病的新名称是 2019 年冠状病毒疾病,缩写为 COVID-19。在 COVID-19 中,“CO”代表“冠状”、“VI”代表“病毒”,以及“D”代表“疾病”。之前,该疾病被称为“2019 年新冠状病毒”或“2019-nCoV”。

人类冠状病毒有许多类型 ,包括一些通常引起轻度上呼吸道疾病的病毒。COVID-19 是一种新的疾病,是由人类之前未见过的新型(或新的)冠状病毒引起的。这种疾病的名称是根据世界卫生组织 (WHO) 最佳实践外部图标external icon命名的,用于命名新的人类传染病。

Q:2019 年开始引起冠状病毒疾病疫情的病毒名称是什么?

2020 年 2 月 11 日,负责命名新病毒的国际病毒分类委员会,将其命名为新型冠状病毒,首先在中国武汉发现,重度急性呼吸道综合征冠状病毒 2,简称为 SARS-CoV-2。

正如名称,病毒与在 2002-2003 年间引起严重急性呼吸综合征(SARS)疫情的 SARS 相关冠状病毒(SARS-CoV)相关,但它并不是相同的病毒。



Q:2019-nCoV 的来源是什么?

A:公共卫生官员及合作伙伴正在努力确定导致 COVID-19 的病毒的原始动物来源。冠状病毒是一大类病毒,其中一些会导致人类患病,而另一些会在动物(包括骆驼、猫和蝙蝠)之间传播。对该病毒的遗传树进行分析表明,它起源于蝙蝠,但是目前尚不清楚病毒是否是直接从蝙蝠中跳出,还是存在中间动物宿主。SARS-CoV,另一种感染人的冠状病毒,来自麝猫,而 MERS-CoV 是一种感染人的冠状病毒,来自骆驼。有关这种新型冠状病毒的来源和传播的更多信息,在 COVID-19 情况总结中提供:病毒的来源和传播。

Q:病毒如何传播?

A:新的冠状病毒看起来似乎是人到人之间传播。了解关于 COVID-19 扩散的已知信息。

Q:已患有 COVID-19 的人是否可以将疾病传播给他人?

A:引起 COVID-19 的病毒是从人到人的传播。正在患有 COVID-19 疾病的人可将疾病传播给他人。这就是为什么 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 建议这些患者或在医院,或家中进行隔离(取决于患病程度),直到它们好转,并不伴有感染他人的风险。

每个人的生病时间可能会有所不同,因此决定何时接触隔离是因人而异的,并需要咨询医生、感染预防和控制专家,以及公共卫生官员时进行讨论,其中涉及考虑每种情况的具体细节,包括疾病严重程度、疾病体征和症状,以及该患者的实验室检测结果。

当前 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 关于何时解除隔离的指南是以逐案分析为基础进行的,包括满足以下所有要求:

患者无需使用退热药物的情况下,并没有发热。
患者不再显示症状,包括咳嗽。
患者至少间隔 24 小时采集至少两份连续呼吸道样本的检测为阴性。
从隔离中解除的人不被视为对他人会造成感染风险。

Q:已被隔离的 COVID-19 的人能否将疾病传播给他人?

A:隔离是指曾经暴露于传染性疾病的,但尚未发展成疾病(症状)的一个人或一组人,与未接触过的其他人分开,以防止该疾病传播的可能。隔离通常在传染病的潜伏期建立,这是人在暴露后患病的时间范围。对于 COVID-19,隔离期为从最后一次暴露之日起的 14 天,因为 14 天是类似冠状病毒的最长的潜伏期。从 COVID-19 隔离中解除的人不再被视为有将病毒传播给他人的风险,因为在隔离期间未发生疾病。



Q:SARS-CoV-2(引起 COVID-19 的病毒)与 MERS-CoV 或 SARS 病毒相同吗?

A:不同。冠状病毒是一大类病毒,其中一些会导致人类患病,而另一些会在动物(包括骆驼、猫和蝙蝠)之间传播。最近出现的 SARS-CoV-2 与导致中东呼吸系统综合征 (MERS) 的冠状病毒或导致严重急性呼吸综合征 (SARS) 冠状病毒的不同。遗传分析表明,SARS-CoV-2 与 2002-2003 年间人群中呼吸系统疾病疫情相关的 SARS-CoV 相关……

预防

Q:我该如何保护自己?

A:访问 COVID-19 预防和治疗页面,以了解如何保护自己免受呼吸系统疾病,如 COVID-19。

Q:如果我与患有 COVID-19 的人密切接触过,该怎么办?

A:在线提供一些与已确诊患有 COVID-19,或者正在接受其评估的患者有密切接触的人的信息。

Q:CDC 是否建议在社区中使用口罩来预防 COVID-19?

A:目前,CDC 并不建议健康人士戴口罩来保护自己免于患上呼吸道疾病(包括 COVID-19)。只有医疗保健专业人员建议时,您才应佩戴口罩。出现症状的 COVID-19 患者应该使用口罩。这是为了保护他人免受感染的风险。对于在封闭环境中(在家中或在医疗护理机构中),照顾感染 COVID-19 病患的医务工作者和其他人来说,戴口罩也是非常重要的。



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医疗信息

Q:COVID-19 可引起哪些症状和并发症?

A:COVID-19 患者报告的当前症状包括轻度至重度呼吸系统疾病,伴发热1、咳嗽和呼吸困难。参阅关于 COVID-19 症状。

Q:我应该接受 COVID-19 检测吗?

A:在从中国旅行后 14 天内,如果您有发热,1及呼吸系统疾病的症状(如咳嗽或气短),您应该致电医疗保健专业人员,并提及您近期的旅行或密切接触。如果你曾与表现出这些症状的人有过密切接触2,而此人最近刚从这个地区旅行回来,您应该致电医疗保健专业人士,并提及您的密切接触和他们近期的旅行。您的医疗保健专业人员将与您所在州的公共卫生部门和 CDC (美国疾病控制与预防中心)合作,以确定您是否需要接受 COVID-19 检测。

Q:如何测试一个人的 COVID-19?

A:此时,COVID-19 的诊断测试只能在 CDC (美国疾病控制与预防中心) 进行。

确定了被调查人员 (PUI)的州和地方卫生部门,应立即通知 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 紧急行动中心 (EOC) 报告 PUI,并确定是否指示在 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 进行 COVID-19 测试。EOC 将协助当地/州的卫生部门适当地收集、储存和运送标本至 CDC,包括在下班时间或周末/节假日。

有关标本采集的更多信息,请参阅 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 实验室信息。

Q:一个人可以被检测为 COVID-19 阴性,之后又被检测为呈阳性吗?

A:使用 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 开发的诊断测试,阴性结果意味着在患者样本中未发现导致 COVID-19 的病毒。在感染的早期阶段,有可能检测不到病毒。

对于 COVID-19,当一个人出现症状时所采集样品的阴性测试结果可能意味着 COVID-19 病毒并未引起当前的疾病。

Q:医疗保健专业人士和卫生部门应该怎么做?

A:为正在被调查的患者的建议和指导;感染控制,包括个人防护装备指南;家庭护理和隔离;以及病例调查,请参阅医疗保健专业人员信息。有关样本采集和运输的信息,请参阅实验室信息。有关 COVID-19 公共卫生专业人员的信息,请参阅公共卫生专业人员信息。

在线提供有关 COVID-19 的医疗保健专业人员的其他常见问题及解答。

公共健康响应和当前情况

Q:CDC 对 COVID-19 所采取的措施是什么?

A:疫情紧急而且发展迅速,CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心)将随时更新信息。CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 24 小时全天候保护人们的健康。CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 24 小时全天候保护人们的健康。在线提供更多关于 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心)对 COVID-19 的响应信息。

Q:我在美国是否有患 COVID-19 的风险?

A:这是一个快速演变的情况,并且风险评估可能每天都在改变。最新情况更新可在 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 的 冠状病毒疾病 2019 (COVID-19) 网页上提供。

Q:美国有人被感染了吗?

A:有。美国首例 COVID-19 报告于 2020 年 1 月 21 日。在 2020 年 1 月 30 日,报道了美国首次确诊的人与人之间传播这种病毒的情况。参阅 COVID-19 当前美国病例数。

Q:从中国运输过来的包裹或产品是否让我有感染 COVID-19的风险?

目前尚不清楚新出现的 COVID-19 及其传播方式。之前已经出现了另外两种导致人体严重疾病的冠状病毒(MERS-CoV 和 SARS-CoV)。导致 COVID-19 的病毒与 MERS-CoV 相比,与 SARS-CoV 更具遗传学相关性,但两者都是源于蝙蝠的 β 病毒。虽然我们不确定这种病毒的行为方式是否与 SARS-CoV 和 MERS-CoV 相同,但我们可以使用这两种早期冠状病毒的信息指导我们。通常,由于这些冠状病毒在表面上的存活率较差,因此在环境温度下几天或几周内运输的产品或包裹的传播风险很低。冠状病毒通常被认为最常被呼吸道飞沫传播。目前,尚无证据支持与进口货物相关的 COVID-19 传播,而且在美国尚未有与进口货物相关的 COVID-19 病例。信息将在可用时在 2019 新型冠状病毒网站提供。

Q:温暖的天气会阻止 COVID-19 疫情吗?

A:尚不清楚天气和温度是否会影响 COVID-19 的传播。其他的一些其他病毒(如普通感冒和流感),在寒冷的天气月份中播散更多,但这并不意味着在其他月份就不可能感染这些病毒。 目前尚不清楚 COVID-19 的传播是否会在天气变暖时减弱。 关于 COVID-19 的可传播性,严重性和其他功能,还有更多的知识要了解,而且也正在进行调查。



COVID-19 和动物

Q:从中国进口的动物或动物产品怎么样?

CDC 没有任何证据表明,从中国进口的动物或动物产品存在在美国传播 COVID-19 的风险。这是一个快速演变的情况,信息将在可用时随时更新。美国疾病控制与预防中心 (CDC)、美国农业部 (USDA) 和美国鱼类及野生动物管理局 (FWS) 在监管向美国进口活体动物和动物产品方面发挥着独特但互补的作用。CDC 监管对人类健康构成威胁的动物和动物产品, USDA 监管external icon对农业构成威胁的动物和动物产品;以及FWS 监管external icon可能危害人类健康福祉、农业、园艺或林业利益以及野生动物资源福利和生存的濒危物种和野生动物的进口。

Q:在 COVID-19 疫情期间,我能否带狗去美国旅行或将狗运进美国?

A:请参考 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心)带狗到美国的要求。当前狂犬病疫苗接种要求适用于从中国,高狂犬病风险国家进口的狗。

Q:我应该担心宠物或其他动物和 COVID-19 吗?

虽然这种病毒最初可能来自动物,但现在似乎正在人与人之间传播。没有理由认为美国的任何动物或宠物可能是这种新冠状病毒感染的来源。

Q:如果我生病,我应该避免接触宠物或其他动物吗?

生病时,不要接触宠物或其他动物。尽管尚无宠物或其他动物由于 COVID-19 而生病的报道,但有多种冠状病毒可能会导致动物患病,并在动物和人之间传播。在我们了解到更多信息前,请避免与动物接触;如果您必须在动物周围或照顾宠物的话,请戴上口罩。

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脚注

1发热可能是主观的或已确认的

2 密切接触的定义是—

长时间处于 COVID-19 患者周围约 6 英尺(2 米)的范围内;在照顾 COVID-19 患者、与其同住、探访或共用医疗候诊区或房间时,可能会发生密切接触
–或者–

与 COVID-19 患者的传染性分泌物直接接触(例如被咳嗽溅到)
如果在未穿着建议的个人防护装备或 PPE(例如,防护服、手套、NIOSH 认证的一次性 N95 呼吸器、眼睛防护罩)的情况下发生此类接触,则符合考虑为 PUI 的标准。”

参阅 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 针对正在研究的 2019 新型冠状病毒研究的患者的临时医疗保健感染预防和控制建议

告知密切接触定义的数据有限。评估密切接触时应考虑的因素包括暴露的持续时间(例如,更长的暴露时间可能会增加暴露风险),以及 COVID-19 患者的临床症状(例如,咳嗽可能会增加重病患者的暴露风险)。应特别考虑那些在医疗环境中暴露的人员。

* 最后审阅页面的日期:2020 年 2 月 15 日

内容来源:国家免疫和呼吸系统疾病中心(National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD)), 病毒性疾病部(Division of Viral Diseases
Tp_graphic_corona_virus_2155_coronavirus_disease_2019_covid_19.jpg
Tp graphic corona virus 2155 coronavirus disease 2019 covid 195 views todayTp graphic corona virus 2155 coronavirus disease 2019 covid 19 Coronavirus psychic prediction by Brian Ladd of brians dreams more at https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_China_Map_Virus_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd China Map Virus New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views todaychina-map-virus

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_China_Membangun_Rs_Khusus_Corona_34634_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd China Membangun Rs Khusus Corona 34634 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views todaychina-membangun-rs-khusus-corona-34634

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Images_Q3Dtbn_And9gcqwmdxqqi8styvhxyswwo_Xlqqi_Ffei9juemksjjn3imqagjljfg_s_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd Images Q3Dtbn And9gcqwmdxqqi8styvhxyswwo Xlqqi Ffei9juemksjjn3imqagjljfg s New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views todayimages_q=tbn_ANd9GcQWMDxqqI8STYVHxySwwO-xlQqI_ffeI9JuemksjJN3imqAGjLJfg&s

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd -

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
0_Jeane_dixon_speaking_coronavirus_disease_2019_covid_19~0.jpg
0 Jeane dixon speaking coronavirus disease 2019 covid 19~03 views today0 Jeane dixon speaking coronavirus disease 2019 covid 19 Coronavirus psychic prediction by Brian Ladd of brians dreams more at https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus
0203_Dyi_miracle_cure_coronavirus_psychic_prediction_by_brian_ladd_coronavirus_home_made_cure_coronavirus_disease_2019_covid_19.jpg
0203 Dyi miracle cure coronavirus psychic prediction by brian ladd coronavirus home made cure coronavirus disease 2019 covid 193 views today0203 Dyi miracle cure coronavirus psychic prediction by brian ladd coronavirus home made cure coronavirus disease 2019 covid 19 Coronavirus psychic prediction by Brian Ladd of brians dreams more at https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus
0052_coronavirus_psychic_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
0052 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views today0052 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. 0052 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
0244_coronavirus_psychic_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
0244 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views today0244 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. 0244 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
This_is_a_tea_to_prevent_and_cure_the_coronavirus_0061_Image_result_for_coronavirus_map_DYI_miracle_cure_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_current_virus_map.jpg
This is a tea to prevent and cure the coronavirus 0061 Image result for coronavirus map DYI miracle cure by Psychic Brian Ladd current virus map3 views todayThis is a tea to prevent and cure the coronavirus 0061 Image result for coronavirus map DYI miracle cure by Psychic Brian Ladd current virus map Worldwide coronavirus map by Psychic Brian Ladd This is my miracle cure tea recipe use this DIY home remedy to prevent and possibly cure the COVID-19 virus

This is a tea to prevent and cure the coronavirus

DYI miracle cure by Psychic Brian Ladd current virus map

This is a tea to prevent and cure the current coronavirus in the world today...this what I think it says:
Take 5 cups of reverse osmosis water with a PPM of less than 20 ppm, boil for 5 minutes then add 1/2 cup of dried Honeysuckle Flowers, 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar, 1/4 cup of dried Huang Lian and 1 tablespoon of regular honey (any type). Boil rapidly until half the liquid is gone, drink hot 3 times a day. (and as always, never take any medical advice from me or anyone without checking with a doctor first)

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

Leading health experts from around the world have been meeting at the World Health Organization’s Geneva headquarters to assess the current level of knowledge about the new COVID-19 disease, identify gaps and work together to accelerate and fund priority research needed to help stop this outbreak and prepare for any future outbreaks.
The 2-day forum was convened in line with the WHO R&D Blueprint – a strategy for developing drugs and vaccines before epidemics, and accelerating research and development while they are occurring.
“This outbreak is a test of solidarity -- political, financial and scientific. We need to come together to fight a common enemy that does not respect borders, ensure that we have the resources necessary to bring this outbreak to an end and bring our best science to the forefront to find shared answers to shared problems. Research is an integral part of the outbreak response,” said WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. “I appreciate the positive response of the research community to join us at short notice and come up with concrete plans and commitment to work together.”
The meeting, hosted in collaboration with GloPID-R (the Global Research Collaboration for Infectious Disease Preparedness) brought together major research funders and over 300 scientists and researchers from a large variety of disciplines. They discussed all aspects of the outbreak and ways to control it including:
the natural history of the virus, its transmission and diagnosis;
animal and environmental research on the origin of the virus, including management measures at the human-animal interface;
epidemiological studies;
clinical characterization and management of disease caused by the virus;
infection prevention and control, including best ways to protect health care workers;
research and development for candidate therapeutics and vaccines;
ethical considerations for research;
and integration of social sciences into the outbreak response.
“This meeting allowed us to identify the urgent priorities for research. As a group of funders we will continue to mobilize, coordinate and align our funding to enable the research needed to tackle this crisis and stop the outbreak, in partnership with WHO,” said Professor Yazdan
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_27dc_Reax_Videolarge_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 27dc Reax Videolarge New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New2 views today27dc-REAX-videoLarge

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_23887368_7932495_A_China_Eastern_Flight_From_Wuhan_Arrives_At_Sydney_Internationa_A_3_1580087118865_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 23887368 7932495 A China Eastern Flight From Wuhan Arrives At Sydney Internationa A 3 1580087118865 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New2 views today23887368-7932495-A_China_Eastern_Flight_from_Wuhan_arrives_at_Sydney_Internationa-a-3_1580087118865

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Ai_Predicted_The_Wuhan_Virus_Outbreak_Before_Everyone_Else_Did_850x460_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd Ai Predicted The Wuhan Virus Outbreak Before Everyone Else Did 850x460 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New2 views todayAI-Predicted-The-Wuhan-Virus-Outbreak-Before-Everyone-Else-Did-850x460

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_China_Australia_Outbreak_270120_Ap_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd China Australia Outbreak 270120 Ap New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New2 views todayChina-Australia-outbreak-270120-AP

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Cover_Image_Jpg_640x360_Q85_Crop_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd Cover Image Jpg 640x360 Q85 Crop New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New2 views todaycover_image.jpg.640x360_q85_crop

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Epqtvyiwkaamx5g_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd Epqtvyiwkaamx5g New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New2 views todayEPQTvYIWkAAMx5G

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Bn_hd445_psychi_p_20150226111614_coronavirus_disease_2019_covid_19.jpg
Bn hd445 psychi p 20150226111614 coronavirus disease 2019 covid 192 views todayBn hd445 psychi p 20150226111614 coronavirus disease 2019 covid 19 Coronavirus psychic prediction by Brian Ladd of brians dreams more at https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus
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Main diff 873x1024 coronavirus disease 2019 covid 192 views todayMain diff 873x1024 coronavirus disease 2019 covid 19 Coronavirus psychic prediction by Brian Ladd of brians dreams more at https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus
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23697208 0 image a 10 1579641781303 Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 2 views today23697208 0 image a 10 1579641781303 Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. 23697208 0 image a 10 1579641781303 Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
This_is_a_tea_to_prevent_and_cure_the_coronavirus_0299_Image_result_for_coronavirus_map_DYI_miracle_cure_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_current_virus_map.jpg
This is a tea to prevent and cure the coronavirus 0299 Image result for coronavirus map DYI miracle cure by Psychic Brian Ladd current virus map2 views todayThis is a tea to prevent and cure the coronavirus 0299 Image result for coronavirus map DYI miracle cure by Psychic Brian Ladd current virus map Worldwide coronavirus map by Psychic Brian Ladd This is my miracle cure tea recipe use this DIY home remedy to prevent and possibly cure the COVID-19 virus

This is a tea to prevent and cure the coronavirus

DYI miracle cure by Psychic Brian Ladd current virus map

This is a tea to prevent and cure the current coronavirus in the world today...this what I think it says:
Take 5 cups of reverse osmosis water with a PPM of less than 20 ppm, boil for 5 minutes then add 1/2 cup of dried Honeysuckle Flowers, 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar, 1/4 cup of dried Huang Lian and 1 tablespoon of regular honey (any type). Boil rapidly until half the liquid is gone, drink hot 3 times a day. (and as always, never take any medical advice from me or anyone without checking with a doctor first)

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

Leading health experts from around the world have been meeting at the World Health Organization’s Geneva headquarters to assess the current level of knowledge about the new COVID-19 disease, identify gaps and work together to accelerate and fund priority research needed to help stop this outbreak and prepare for any future outbreaks.
The 2-day forum was convened in line with the WHO R&D Blueprint – a strategy for developing drugs and vaccines before epidemics, and accelerating research and development while they are occurring.
“This outbreak is a test of solidarity -- political, financial and scientific. We need to come together to fight a common enemy that does not respect borders, ensure that we have the resources necessary to bring this outbreak to an end and bring our best science to the forefront to find shared answers to shared problems. Research is an integral part of the outbreak response,” said WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. “I appreciate the positive response of the research community to join us at short notice and come up with concrete plans and commitment to work together.”
The meeting, hosted in collaboration with GloPID-R (the Global Research Collaboration for Infectious Disease Preparedness) brought together major research funders and over 300 scientists and researchers from a large variety of disciplines. They discussed all aspects of the outbreak and ways to control it including:
the natural history of the virus, its transmission and diagnosis;
animal and environmental research on the origin of the virus, including management measures at the human-animal interface;
epidemiological studies;
clinical characterization and management of disease caused by the virus;
infection prevention and control, including best ways to protect health care workers;
research and development for candidate therapeutics and vaccines;
ethical considerations for research;
and integration of social sciences into the outbreak response.
“This meeting allowed us to identify the urgent priorities for research. As a group of funders we will continue to mobilize, coordinate and align our funding to enable the research needed to tackle this crisis and stop the outbreak, in partnership with WHO,” said Professor Yazdan
This_is_a_tea_to_prevent_and_cure_the_coronavirus_0331_Image_result_for_coronavirus_map_DYI_miracle_cure_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_current_virus_map.jpg
This is a tea to prevent and cure the coronavirus 0331 Image result for coronavirus map DYI miracle cure by Psychic Brian Ladd current virus map2 views todayThis is a tea to prevent and cure the coronavirus 0331 Image result for coronavirus map DYI miracle cure by Psychic Brian Ladd current virus map Worldwide coronavirus map by Psychic Brian Ladd This is my miracle cure tea recipe use this DIY home remedy to prevent and possibly cure the COVID-19 virus

This is a tea to prevent and cure the coronavirus

DYI miracle cure by Psychic Brian Ladd current virus map

This is a tea to prevent and cure the current coronavirus in the world today...this what I think it says:
Take 5 cups of reverse osmosis water with a PPM of less than 20 ppm, boil for 5 minutes then add 1/2 cup of dried Honeysuckle Flowers, 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar, 1/4 cup of dried Huang Lian and 1 tablespoon of regular honey (any type). Boil rapidly until half the liquid is gone, drink hot 3 times a day. (and as always, never take any medical advice from me or anyone without checking with a doctor first)

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

Leading health experts from around the world have been meeting at the World Health Organization’s Geneva headquarters to assess the current level of knowledge about the new COVID-19 disease, identify gaps and work together to accelerate and fund priority research needed to help stop this outbreak and prepare for any future outbreaks.
The 2-day forum was convened in line with the WHO R&D Blueprint – a strategy for developing drugs and vaccines before epidemics, and accelerating research and development while they are occurring.
“This outbreak is a test of solidarity -- political, financial and scientific. We need to come together to fight a common enemy that does not respect borders, ensure that we have the resources necessary to bring this outbreak to an end and bring our best science to the forefront to find shared answers to shared problems. Research is an integral part of the outbreak response,” said WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. “I appreciate the positive response of the research community to join us at short notice and come up with concrete plans and commitment to work together.”
The meeting, hosted in collaboration with GloPID-R (the Global Research Collaboration for Infectious Disease Preparedness) brought together major research funders and over 300 scientists and researchers from a large variety of disciplines. They discussed all aspects of the outbreak and ways to control it including:
the natural history of the virus, its transmission and diagnosis;
animal and environmental research on the origin of the virus, including management measures at the human-animal interface;
epidemiological studies;
clinical characterization and management of disease caused by the virus;
infection prevention and control, including best ways to protect health care workers;
research and development for candidate therapeutics and vaccines;
ethical considerations for research;
and integration of social sciences into the outbreak response.
“This meeting allowed us to identify the urgent priorities for research. As a group of funders we will continue to mobilize, coordinate and align our funding to enable the research needed to tackle this crisis and stop the outbreak, in partnership with WHO,” said Professor Yazdan
China-Chinese-Coronavirus-Plague-Came-From-Lab-In-Wuhan-Global-Pandemic-Will-Reach-United-States-933x445.jpg
China-Chinese-Coronavirus-Plague-Came-From-Lab-In-Wuhan-Global-Pandemic-Will-Reach-United-States-933x4452 views todayChina-Chinese-Coronavirus-Plague-Came-From-Lab-In-Wuhan-Global-Pandemic-Will-Reach-United-States-933x445 Wuhan National Bio-safety Laboratory Coronovirus AI drugs psychic prediction by Brian Ladd AID research being used as bioweapons

bioweapons Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所

The Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 is a research institute administered by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) on virology, and is located in Jiangxia District, Wuhan, Hubei, China. In 2015, the Institute opened the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China.

Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory
South China Institute of Microbiology
Wuhan Microbiology Institute
Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province

Chen Huagui, Gao Shangyin

Wang Yanyi
Secretary of Party Committee
Xiao Gengfu[1]
Deputy Director-General
Gong Peng, Guan Wuxiang, Xiao Gengfu
Parent organization
Chinese Academy of Sciences
The Institute was founded in 1956 as the Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In 1961, it became the South China Institute of Microbiology, and in 1962 was renamed to Wuhan Microbiology Institute. In 1970, it became the Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province when the Hubei Commission of Science and Technology took over the administration. In June 1978, it was returned to the CAS and renamed Wuhan Institute of Virology
In 2015, the National Bio-safety Laboratory was completed at a cost of 300 million yuan ($44 million) at the Institute in collaboration with French engineers from Lyon, and was the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China. The laboratory took over a decade to complete from its conception in 2003, and scientists such as U.S. molecular biologist Richard H. Ebright expressed concern of previous escapes of the SARS virus at Chinese laboratories in Beijing, and the pace and scale of China's plans for expansion into BSL–4 laboratories. The Laboratory has strong ties to the Galveston National Laboratory in the University of Texas.[ In 2020, Ebright called the Institute a "world-class research institution that does world-class research in virology and immunology".
2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
Main article: 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
In February 2020, the New York Times reported that a team led by Shi Zhengli at the Institute were the first to identify, analyze and name the genetic sequence of the Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and upload it to public databases for scientists around the world to understand and publishing papers in Nature. In February 2020, the Institute applied for a patent in China for the use of remdesivir, an experimental drug owned by Gilead Sciences, which the Institute found inhibited the virus invitro;[9] in a move which also raised concerns regarding international intellectual property rights.[ In a statement, the Institute said it would not exercise its new Chinese patent rights "if relevant foreign companies intend to contribute to the prevention and control of China’s epidemic"
The Institute was rumored as a source for the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak as a result of allegations of bioweapon research, which was debunked as a conspiracy theory by The Washington Post in a piece titled: "Experts debunk fringe theory linking China’s coronavirus to weapons research". The Post cited U.S. experts who explained why the Institute was not suitable for bioweapon research, that most countries had abandoned bioweapons as fruitless, and that there was no evidence that the virus was genetically engineered. In February 2020, The Financial Times reported from virus expert and global lead coronavirus investigator, Trevor Bradford, who said that "The evidence we have is that the mutations [in the virus] are completely consistent with natural evolution".
During January and February 2020, the Institute was subject to further conspiracy theories, and concerns that it was the source of the outbreak through accidental leakage which it publicly refuted. Members of the Institute's research teams were also subject to various conspiracy theories including Shi, who made various public statements defending the Institute. While Ebright refuted several of conspiracy theories regarding the WIV, he told BBC China that this did not represent the possibility of the virus being "completely ruled out" from entering the population due to a laboratory accident.
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Wuhan_National_Bio-Safety_Laboratory_Coronovirus_Ai_Drugs_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_0001_Gr1_Bioweapons__Wuhan_Institute_Of_Virology___Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20_.jpg
Wuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 0001 Gr1 Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20 2 views todayWuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 0001 Gr1 Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 Wuhan National Bio-safety Laboratory Coronovirus AI drugs psychic prediction by Brian Ladd AID research being used as bioweapons

bioweapons Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所

The Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 is a research institute administered by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) on virology, and is located in Jiangxia District, Wuhan, Hubei, China. In 2015, the Institute opened the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China.

Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory
South China Institute of Microbiology
Wuhan Microbiology Institute
Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province

Chen Huagui, Gao Shangyin

Wang Yanyi
Secretary of Party Committee
Xiao Gengfu[1]
Deputy Director-General
Gong Peng, Guan Wuxiang, Xiao Gengfu
Parent organization
Chinese Academy of Sciences
The Institute was founded in 1956 as the Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In 1961, it became the South China Institute of Microbiology, and in 1962 was renamed to Wuhan Microbiology Institute. In 1970, it became the Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province when the Hubei Commission of Science and Technology took over the administration. In June 1978, it was returned to the CAS and renamed Wuhan Institute of Virology
In 2015, the National Bio-safety Laboratory was completed at a cost of 300 million yuan ($44 million) at the Institute in collaboration with French engineers from Lyon, and was the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China. The laboratory took over a decade to complete from its conception in 2003, and scientists such as U.S. molecular biologist Richard H. Ebright expressed concern of previous escapes of the SARS virus at Chinese laboratories in Beijing, and the pace and scale of China's plans for expansion into BSL–4 laboratories. The Laboratory has strong ties to the Galveston National Laboratory in the University of Texas.[ In 2020, Ebright called the Institute a "world-class research institution that does world-class research in virology and immunology".
2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
Main article: 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
In February 2020, the New York Times reported that a team led by Shi Zhengli at the Institute were the first to identify, analyze and name the genetic sequence of the Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and upload it to public databases for scientists around the world to understand and publishing papers in Nature. In February 2020, the Institute applied for a patent in China for the use of remdesivir, an experimental drug owned by Gilead Sciences, which the Institute found inhibited the virus invitro;[9] in a move which also raised concerns regarding international intellectual property rights.[ In a statement, the Institute said it would not exercise its new Chinese patent rights "if relevant foreign companies intend to contribute to the prevention and control of China’s epidemic"
The Institute was rumored as a source for the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak as a result of allegations of bioweapon research, which was debunked as a conspiracy theory by The Washington Post in a piece titled: "Experts debunk fringe theory linking China’s coronavirus to weapons research". The Post cited U.S. experts who explained why the Institute was not suitable for bioweapon research, that most countries had abandoned bioweapons as fruitless, and that there was no evidence that the virus was genetically engineered. In February 2020, The Financial Times reported from virus expert and global lead coronavirus investigator, Trevor Bradford, who said that "The evidence we have is that the mutations [in the virus] are completely consistent with natural evolution".
During January and February 2020, the Institute was subject to further conspiracy theories, and concerns that it was the source of the outbreak through accidental leakage which it publicly refuted. Members of the Institute's research teams were also subject to various conspiracy theories including Shi, who made various public statements defending the Institute. While Ebright refuted several of conspiracy theories regarding the WIV, he told BBC China that this did not represent the possibility of the virus being "completely ruled out" from entering the population due to a laboratory accident.
Wuhan_National_Bio-Safety_Laboratory_Coronovirus_Ai_Drugs_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_0005_Image_Result_For_Wuhan_Institute_Of_Virology_Bioweapons__Wuhan_Institute_Of_Virology___Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20_.jpg
Wuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 0005 Image Result For Wuhan Institute Of Virology Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20 2 views todayWuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 0005 Image Result For Wuhan Institute Of Virology Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 Wuhan National Bio-safety Laboratory Coronovirus AI drugs psychic prediction by Brian Ladd AID research being used as bioweapons

bioweapons Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所

The Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 is a research institute administered by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) on virology, and is located in Jiangxia District, Wuhan, Hubei, China. In 2015, the Institute opened the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China.

Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory
South China Institute of Microbiology
Wuhan Microbiology Institute
Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province

Chen Huagui, Gao Shangyin

Wang Yanyi
Secretary of Party Committee
Xiao Gengfu[1]
Deputy Director-General
Gong Peng, Guan Wuxiang, Xiao Gengfu
Parent organization
Chinese Academy of Sciences
The Institute was founded in 1956 as the Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In 1961, it became the South China Institute of Microbiology, and in 1962 was renamed to Wuhan Microbiology Institute. In 1970, it became the Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province when the Hubei Commission of Science and Technology took over the administration. In June 1978, it was returned to the CAS and renamed Wuhan Institute of Virology
In 2015, the National Bio-safety Laboratory was completed at a cost of 300 million yuan ($44 million) at the Institute in collaboration with French engineers from Lyon, and was the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China. The laboratory took over a decade to complete from its conception in 2003, and scientists such as U.S. molecular biologist Richard H. Ebright expressed concern of previous escapes of the SARS virus at Chinese laboratories in Beijing, and the pace and scale of China's plans for expansion into BSL–4 laboratories. The Laboratory has strong ties to the Galveston National Laboratory in the University of Texas.[ In 2020, Ebright called the Institute a "world-class research institution that does world-class research in virology and immunology".
2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
Main article: 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
In February 2020, the New York Times reported that a team led by Shi Zhengli at the Institute were the first to identify, analyze and name the genetic sequence of the Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and upload it to public databases for scientists around the world to understand and publishing papers in Nature. In February 2020, the Institute applied for a patent in China for the use of remdesivir, an experimental drug owned by Gilead Sciences, which the Institute found inhibited the virus invitro;[9] in a move which also raised concerns regarding international intellectual property rights.[ In a statement, the Institute said it would not exercise its new Chinese patent rights "if relevant foreign companies intend to contribute to the prevention and control of China’s epidemic"
The Institute was rumored as a source for the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak as a result of allegations of bioweapon research, which was debunked as a conspiracy theory by The Washington Post in a piece titled: "Experts debunk fringe theory linking China’s coronavirus to weapons research". The Post cited U.S. experts who explained why the Institute was not suitable for bioweapon research, that most countries had abandoned bioweapons as fruitless, and that there was no evidence that the virus was genetically engineered. In February 2020, The Financial Times reported from virus expert and global lead coronavirus investigator, Trevor Bradford, who said that "The evidence we have is that the mutations [in the virus] are completely consistent with natural evolution".
During January and February 2020, the Institute was subject to further conspiracy theories, and concerns that it was the source of the outbreak through accidental leakage which it publicly refuted. Members of the Institute's research teams were also subject to various conspiracy theories including Shi, who made various public statements defending the Institute. While Ebright refuted several of conspiracy theories regarding the WIV, he told BBC China that this did not represent the possibility of the virus being "completely ruled out" from entering the population due to a laboratory accident.
Wuhan_National_Bio-Safety_Laboratory_Coronovirus_Ai_Drugs_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_0016_Image_Result_For_Wuhan_Institute_Of_Virology_Bioweapons__Wuhan_Institute_Of_Virology___Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20_.jpg
Wuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 0016 Image Result For Wuhan Institute Of Virology Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20 2 views todayWuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 0016 Image Result For Wuhan Institute Of Virology Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 Wuhan National Bio-safety Laboratory Coronovirus AI drugs psychic prediction by Brian Ladd AID research being used as bioweapons

bioweapons Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所

The Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 is a research institute administered by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) on virology, and is located in Jiangxia District, Wuhan, Hubei, China. In 2015, the Institute opened the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China.

Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory
South China Institute of Microbiology
Wuhan Microbiology Institute
Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province

Chen Huagui, Gao Shangyin

Wang Yanyi
Secretary of Party Committee
Xiao Gengfu[1]
Deputy Director-General
Gong Peng, Guan Wuxiang, Xiao Gengfu
Parent organization
Chinese Academy of Sciences
The Institute was founded in 1956 as the Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In 1961, it became the South China Institute of Microbiology, and in 1962 was renamed to Wuhan Microbiology Institute. In 1970, it became the Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province when the Hubei Commission of Science and Technology took over the administration. In June 1978, it was returned to the CAS and renamed Wuhan Institute of Virology
In 2015, the National Bio-safety Laboratory was completed at a cost of 300 million yuan ($44 million) at the Institute in collaboration with French engineers from Lyon, and was the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China. The laboratory took over a decade to complete from its conception in 2003, and scientists such as U.S. molecular biologist Richard H. Ebright expressed concern of previous escapes of the SARS virus at Chinese laboratories in Beijing, and the pace and scale of China's plans for expansion into BSL–4 laboratories. The Laboratory has strong ties to the Galveston National Laboratory in the University of Texas.[ In 2020, Ebright called the Institute a "world-class research institution that does world-class research in virology and immunology".
2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
Main article: 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
In February 2020, the New York Times reported that a team led by Shi Zhengli at the Institute were the first to identify, analyze and name the genetic sequence of the Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and upload it to public databases for scientists around the world to understand and publishing papers in Nature. In February 2020, the Institute applied for a patent in China for the use of remdesivir, an experimental drug owned by Gilead Sciences, which the Institute found inhibited the virus invitro;[9] in a move which also raised concerns regarding international intellectual property rights.[ In a statement, the Institute said it would not exercise its new Chinese patent rights "if relevant foreign companies intend to contribute to the prevention and control of China’s epidemic"
The Institute was rumored as a source for the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak as a result of allegations of bioweapon research, which was debunked as a conspiracy theory by The Washington Post in a piece titled: "Experts debunk fringe theory linking China’s coronavirus to weapons research". The Post cited U.S. experts who explained why the Institute was not suitable for bioweapon research, that most countries had abandoned bioweapons as fruitless, and that there was no evidence that the virus was genetically engineered. In February 2020, The Financial Times reported from virus expert and global lead coronavirus investigator, Trevor Bradford, who said that "The evidence we have is that the mutations [in the virus] are completely consistent with natural evolution".
During January and February 2020, the Institute was subject to further conspiracy theories, and concerns that it was the source of the outbreak through accidental leakage which it publicly refuted. Members of the Institute's research teams were also subject to various conspiracy theories including Shi, who made various public statements defending the Institute. While Ebright refuted several of conspiracy theories regarding the WIV, he told BBC China that this did not represent the possibility of the virus being "completely ruled out" from entering the population due to a laboratory accident.
Wuhan_National_Bio-Safety_Laboratory_Coronovirus_Ai_Drugs_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_0028_Image_Result_For_Wuhan_Institute_Of_Virology_Bioweapons__Wuhan_Institute_Of_Virology___Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20_.jpg
Wuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 0028 Image Result For Wuhan Institute Of Virology Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20 2 views todayWuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 0028 Image Result For Wuhan Institute Of Virology Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 Wuhan National Bio-safety Laboratory Coronovirus AI drugs psychic prediction by Brian Ladd AID research being used as bioweapons

bioweapons Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所

The Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 is a research institute administered by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) on virology, and is located in Jiangxia District, Wuhan, Hubei, China. In 2015, the Institute opened the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China.

Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory
South China Institute of Microbiology
Wuhan Microbiology Institute
Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province

Chen Huagui, Gao Shangyin

Wang Yanyi
Secretary of Party Committee
Xiao Gengfu[1]
Deputy Director-General
Gong Peng, Guan Wuxiang, Xiao Gengfu
Parent organization
Chinese Academy of Sciences
The Institute was founded in 1956 as the Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In 1961, it became the South China Institute of Microbiology, and in 1962 was renamed to Wuhan Microbiology Institute. In 1970, it became the Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province when the Hubei Commission of Science and Technology took over the administration. In June 1978, it was returned to the CAS and renamed Wuhan Institute of Virology
In 2015, the National Bio-safety Laboratory was completed at a cost of 300 million yuan ($44 million) at the Institute in collaboration with French engineers from Lyon, and was the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China. The laboratory took over a decade to complete from its conception in 2003, and scientists such as U.S. molecular biologist Richard H. Ebright expressed concern of previous escapes of the SARS virus at Chinese laboratories in Beijing, and the pace and scale of China's plans for expansion into BSL–4 laboratories. The Laboratory has strong ties to the Galveston National Laboratory in the University of Texas.[ In 2020, Ebright called the Institute a "world-class research institution that does world-class research in virology and immunology".
2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
Main article: 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
In February 2020, the New York Times reported that a team led by Shi Zhengli at the Institute were the first to identify, analyze and name the genetic sequence of the Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and upload it to public databases for scientists around the world to understand and publishing papers in Nature. In February 2020, the Institute applied for a patent in China for the use of remdesivir, an experimental drug owned by Gilead Sciences, which the Institute found inhibited the virus invitro;[9] in a move which also raised concerns regarding international intellectual property rights.[ In a statement, the Institute said it would not exercise its new Chinese patent rights "if relevant foreign companies intend to contribute to the prevention and control of China’s epidemic"
The Institute was rumored as a source for the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak as a result of allegations of bioweapon research, which was debunked as a conspiracy theory by The Washington Post in a piece titled: "Experts debunk fringe theory linking China’s coronavirus to weapons research". The Post cited U.S. experts who explained why the Institute was not suitable for bioweapon research, that most countries had abandoned bioweapons as fruitless, and that there was no evidence that the virus was genetically engineered. In February 2020, The Financial Times reported from virus expert and global lead coronavirus investigator, Trevor Bradford, who said that "The evidence we have is that the mutations [in the virus] are completely consistent with natural evolution".
During January and February 2020, the Institute was subject to further conspiracy theories, and concerns that it was the source of the outbreak through accidental leakage which it publicly refuted. Members of the Institute's research teams were also subject to various conspiracy theories including Shi, who made various public statements defending the Institute. While Ebright refuted several of conspiracy theories regarding the WIV, he told BBC China that this did not represent the possibility of the virus being "completely ruled out" from entering the population due to a laboratory accident.
Wuhan_National_Bio-Safety_Laboratory_Coronovirus_Ai_Drugs_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_0085_Image_Result_For_Sars-Cov-2_Hiv_Bioweapons__Wuhan_Institute_Of_Virology___Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20_.jpg
Wuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 0085 Image Result For Sars-Cov-2 Hiv Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20 2 views todayWuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 0085 Image Result For Sars-Cov-2 Hiv Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 Wuhan National Bio-safety Laboratory Coronovirus AI drugs psychic prediction by Brian Ladd AID research being used as bioweapons

bioweapons Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所

The Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 is a research institute administered by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) on virology, and is located in Jiangxia District, Wuhan, Hubei, China. In 2015, the Institute opened the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China.

Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory
South China Institute of Microbiology
Wuhan Microbiology Institute
Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province

Chen Huagui, Gao Shangyin

Wang Yanyi
Secretary of Party Committee
Xiao Gengfu[1]
Deputy Director-General
Gong Peng, Guan Wuxiang, Xiao Gengfu
Parent organization
Chinese Academy of Sciences
The Institute was founded in 1956 as the Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In 1961, it became the South China Institute of Microbiology, and in 1962 was renamed to Wuhan Microbiology Institute. In 1970, it became the Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province when the Hubei Commission of Science and Technology took over the administration. In June 1978, it was returned to the CAS and renamed Wuhan Institute of Virology
In 2015, the National Bio-safety Laboratory was completed at a cost of 300 million yuan ($44 million) at the Institute in collaboration with French engineers from Lyon, and was the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China. The laboratory took over a decade to complete from its conception in 2003, and scientists such as U.S. molecular biologist Richard H. Ebright expressed concern of previous escapes of the SARS virus at Chinese laboratories in Beijing, and the pace and scale of China's plans for expansion into BSL–4 laboratories. The Laboratory has strong ties to the Galveston National Laboratory in the University of Texas.[ In 2020, Ebright called the Institute a "world-class research institution that does world-class research in virology and immunology".
2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
Main article: 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
In February 2020, the New York Times reported that a team led by Shi Zhengli at the Institute were the first to identify, analyze and name the genetic sequence of the Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and upload it to public databases for scientists around the world to understand and publishing papers in Nature. In February 2020, the Institute applied for a patent in China for the use of remdesivir, an experimental drug owned by Gilead Sciences, which the Institute found inhibited the virus invitro;[9] in a move which also raised concerns regarding international intellectual property rights.[ In a statement, the Institute said it would not exercise its new Chinese patent rights "if relevant foreign companies intend to contribute to the prevention and control of China’s epidemic"
The Institute was rumored as a source for the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak as a result of allegations of bioweapon research, which was debunked as a conspiracy theory by The Washington Post in a piece titled: "Experts debunk fringe theory linking China’s coronavirus to weapons research". The Post cited U.S. experts who explained why the Institute was not suitable for bioweapon research, that most countries had abandoned bioweapons as fruitless, and that there was no evidence that the virus was genetically engineered. In February 2020, The Financial Times reported from virus expert and global lead coronavirus investigator, Trevor Bradford, who said that "The evidence we have is that the mutations [in the virus] are completely consistent with natural evolution".
During January and February 2020, the Institute was subject to further conspiracy theories, and concerns that it was the source of the outbreak through accidental leakage which it publicly refuted. Members of the Institute's research teams were also subject to various conspiracy theories including Shi, who made various public statements defending the Institute. While Ebright refuted several of conspiracy theories regarding the WIV, he told BBC China that this did not represent the possibility of the virus being "completely ruled out" from entering the population due to a laboratory accident.
Wuhan_National_Bio-Safety_Laboratory_Coronovirus_Ai_Drugs_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_0172_Image_Result_For_Wuhan_Institute_Of_Virology_Bioweapons__Wuhan_Institute_Of_Virology___Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20_.jpg
Wuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 0172 Image Result For Wuhan Institute Of Virology Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20 2 views todayWuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 0172 Image Result For Wuhan Institute Of Virology Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 Wuhan National Bio-safety Laboratory Coronovirus AI drugs psychic prediction by Brian Ladd AID research being used as bioweapons

bioweapons Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所

The Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 is a research institute administered by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) on virology, and is located in Jiangxia District, Wuhan, Hubei, China. In 2015, the Institute opened the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China.

Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory
South China Institute of Microbiology
Wuhan Microbiology Institute
Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province

Chen Huagui, Gao Shangyin

Wang Yanyi
Secretary of Party Committee
Xiao Gengfu[1]
Deputy Director-General
Gong Peng, Guan Wuxiang, Xiao Gengfu
Parent organization
Chinese Academy of Sciences
The Institute was founded in 1956 as the Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In 1961, it became the South China Institute of Microbiology, and in 1962 was renamed to Wuhan Microbiology Institute. In 1970, it became the Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province when the Hubei Commission of Science and Technology took over the administration. In June 1978, it was returned to the CAS and renamed Wuhan Institute of Virology
In 2015, the National Bio-safety Laboratory was completed at a cost of 300 million yuan ($44 million) at the Institute in collaboration with French engineers from Lyon, and was the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China. The laboratory took over a decade to complete from its conception in 2003, and scientists such as U.S. molecular biologist Richard H. Ebright expressed concern of previous escapes of the SARS virus at Chinese laboratories in Beijing, and the pace and scale of China's plans for expansion into BSL–4 laboratories. The Laboratory has strong ties to the Galveston National Laboratory in the University of Texas.[ In 2020, Ebright called the Institute a "world-class research institution that does world-class research in virology and immunology".
2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
Main article: 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
In February 2020, the New York Times reported that a team led by Shi Zhengli at the Institute were the first to identify, analyze and name the genetic sequence of the Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and upload it to public databases for scientists around the world to understand and publishing papers in Nature. In February 2020, the Institute applied for a patent in China for the use of remdesivir, an experimental drug owned by Gilead Sciences, which the Institute found inhibited the virus invitro;[9] in a move which also raised concerns regarding international intellectual property rights.[ In a statement, the Institute said it would not exercise its new Chinese patent rights "if relevant foreign companies intend to contribute to the prevention and control of China’s epidemic"
The Institute was rumored as a source for the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak as a result of allegations of bioweapon research, which was debunked as a conspiracy theory by The Washington Post in a piece titled: "Experts debunk fringe theory linking China’s coronavirus to weapons research". The Post cited U.S. experts who explained why the Institute was not suitable for bioweapon research, that most countries had abandoned bioweapons as fruitless, and that there was no evidence that the virus was genetically engineered. In February 2020, The Financial Times reported from virus expert and global lead coronavirus investigator, Trevor Bradford, who said that "The evidence we have is that the mutations [in the virus] are completely consistent with natural evolution".
During January and February 2020, the Institute was subject to further conspiracy theories, and concerns that it was the source of the outbreak through accidental leakage which it publicly refuted. Members of the Institute's research teams were also subject to various conspiracy theories including Shi, who made various public statements defending the Institute. While Ebright refuted several of conspiracy theories regarding the WIV, he told BBC China that this did not represent the possibility of the virus being "completely ruled out" from entering the population due to a laboratory accident.
Wuhan_National_Bio-Safety_Laboratory_Coronovirus_Ai_Drugs_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_12245-E1582090776198_Bioweapons__Wuhan_Institute_Of_Virology___Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20_.jpg
Wuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 12245-E1582090776198 Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology Zhong20Guo20Ke20Xue20Yuan20Wu20Yi20Bing20Du20Yan20Jiu20Suo20 2 views todayWuhan National Bio-Safety Laboratory Coronovirus Ai Drugs Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 12245-E1582090776198 Bioweapons Wuhan Institute Of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 Wuhan National Bio-safety Laboratory Coronovirus AI drugs psychic prediction by Brian Ladd AID research being used as bioweapons

bioweapons Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所

The Wuhan Institute of Virology 中国科学院武汉病毒研究所 is a research institute administered by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) on virology, and is located in Jiangxia District, Wuhan, Hubei, China. In 2015, the Institute opened the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China.

Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory
South China Institute of Microbiology
Wuhan Microbiology Institute
Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province

Chen Huagui, Gao Shangyin

Wang Yanyi
Secretary of Party Committee
Xiao Gengfu[1]
Deputy Director-General
Gong Peng, Guan Wuxiang, Xiao Gengfu
Parent organization
Chinese Academy of Sciences
The Institute was founded in 1956 as the Wuhan Microbiology Laboratory under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In 1961, it became the South China Institute of Microbiology, and in 1962 was renamed to Wuhan Microbiology Institute. In 1970, it became the Microbiology Institute of Hubei Province when the Hubei Commission of Science and Technology took over the administration. In June 1978, it was returned to the CAS and renamed Wuhan Institute of Virology
In 2015, the National Bio-safety Laboratory was completed at a cost of 300 million yuan ($44 million) at the Institute in collaboration with French engineers from Lyon, and was the first biosafety level 4 (BSL–4) laboratory to be built in mainland China. The laboratory took over a decade to complete from its conception in 2003, and scientists such as U.S. molecular biologist Richard H. Ebright expressed concern of previous escapes of the SARS virus at Chinese laboratories in Beijing, and the pace and scale of China's plans for expansion into BSL–4 laboratories. The Laboratory has strong ties to the Galveston National Laboratory in the University of Texas.[ In 2020, Ebright called the Institute a "world-class research institution that does world-class research in virology and immunology".
2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
Main article: 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak
In February 2020, the New York Times reported that a team led by Shi Zhengli at the Institute were the first to identify, analyze and name the genetic sequence of the Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and upload it to public databases for scientists around the world to understand and publishing papers in Nature. In February 2020, the Institute applied for a patent in China for the use of remdesivir, an experimental drug owned by Gilead Sciences, which the Institute found inhibited the virus invitro;[9] in a move which also raised concerns regarding international intellectual property rights.[ In a statement, the Institute said it would not exercise its new Chinese patent rights "if relevant foreign companies intend to contribute to the prevention and control of China’s epidemic"
The Institute was rumored as a source for the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak as a result of allegations of bioweapon research, which was debunked as a conspiracy theory by The Washington Post in a piece titled: "Experts debunk fringe theory linking China’s coronavirus to weapons research". The Post cited U.S. experts who explained why the Institute was not suitable for bioweapon research, that most countries had abandoned bioweapons as fruitless, and that there was no evidence that the virus was genetically engineered. In February 2020, The Financial Times reported from virus expert and global lead coronavirus investigator, Trevor Bradford, who said that "The evidence we have is that the mutations [in the virus] are completely consistent with natural evolution".
During January and February 2020, the Institute was subject to further conspiracy theories, and concerns that it was the source of the outbreak through accidental leakage which it publicly refuted. Members of the Institute's research teams were also subject to various conspiracy theories including Shi, who made various public statements defending the Institute. While Ebright refuted several of conspiracy theories regarding the WIV, he told BBC China that this did not represent the possibility of the virus being "completely ruled out" from entering the population due to a laboratory accident.
My_Coronavirus_Miracle_Cure_This_Homemade_Diy_Alternative_Treatment_Recipe_Might_Actually_Work_And_Its_Freeby_Pssychic_Brian_Ladd0421.png
My Coronavirus Miracle Cure This Homemade Diy Alternative Treatment Recipe Might Actually Work And Its Freeby Pssychic Brian Ladd04212 views today
CDC_Cornovirus_leader_Trump_Pence_are_hiding_the_truth_real_number_of_tests_administered_lying_about_national_cases_over_5_million_infections_0075__Psychic_Brian_Ladd_for_site_.jpg
CDC Cornovirus leader Trump Pence are hiding the truth real number of tests administered lying about national cases over 5 million infections 0075 Psychic Brian Ladd for site 2 views todayCoronavirus miracle cure tea this homemade recipe DIY coronavirus tea alternative treatment recipe might really work and it's free CDC Cornovirus leader Trump Pence are hiding the truth real number of tests administered lying about national cases over 5 million infections 0075_ Psychic Brian Ladd for site_

This is a tea to prevent and cure the current coronavirus in the world today...this what I think it says:

Take 5 cups of reverse osmosis water with a PPM of less than 20 ppm, boil for 5 minutes then add 1/2 cup of dried Honeysuckle Flowers, 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar, 1/4 cup of dried Huang Lian and 1 tablespoon of regular honey (any type). Boil rapidly until half the liquid is gone, drink hot 3 times a day. (and as always, never take any medical advice from me or anyone without checking with a doctor first)
How COVID-19 Spreads
中文 | Español
Current understanding about how the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads is largely based on what is known about similar coronaviruses. COVID-19 is a new disease and there is more to learn about how it spreads, the severity of illness it causes, and to what extent it may spread in the United States.

Person-to-person spread
The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.

Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet).
Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.

Spread from contact with infected surfaces or objects
It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.

Can someone spread the virus without being sick?
People are thought to be most contagious when they are most symptomatic (the sickest).
Some spread might be possible before people show symptoms; there have been reports of this occurring with this new coronavirus, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.
How easily does the virus spread?
How easily a virus spreads from person-to-person can vary. Some viruses are highly contagious (spread easily), like measles, while other viruses do not spread as easily. Another factor is whether the spread is sustained.

The virus that causes COVID-19 seems to be spreading easily and sustainably in the community (“community spread”) in some affected geographic areas. Community spread means people have been infected with the virus in an area, including some who are not sure how or where they became infected.



v常见问题解答
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相关页

本页内容

疾病基础知识
预防
医疗信息
公共健康响应和当前情况
旅行
COVID-19 和动物
关于其他常见问题解答:

旅行
面向医疗保健专业人员的信息
呼吸器及其使用
诊断检测板和病毒的实验室申请
孕妇和 COVID-19
医疗保健感染预防和控制


请注意,某些链接指向仅以英文显示的页面。

疾病基础知识

Q:新型冠状病毒是什么?

A:新型冠状病毒 (CoV) 是一种之前尚未确定新的冠状病毒。导致冠状病毒疾病 2019 (COVID-19) 的病毒不同于在人类中普遍传播的冠状病毒 ,引起轻度疾病,如普通感冒。

冠状病毒 229E、NL63、OC43 或 HKU1 的诊断与 COVID-19 诊断不同。这些是不同的病毒,2019-nCoV 患者将接受不同于常见冠状病毒诊断的患者的评估和护理。

Q:为什么现在引起疫情的该疾病被称为冠状病毒疾病 2019,COVID-19?

A:2020 年 2 月 11 日,世界卫生组织宣布了导致最早在中国武汉发现的 2019 新型冠状病毒疫情疾病的官方正式名称。该疾病的新名称是 2019 年冠状病毒疾病,缩写为 COVID-19。在 COVID-19 中,“CO”代表“冠状”、“VI”代表“病毒”,以及“D”代表“疾病”。之前,该疾病被称为“2019 年新冠状病毒”或“2019-nCoV”。

人类冠状病毒有许多类型 ,包括一些通常引起轻度上呼吸道疾病的病毒。COVID-19 是一种新的疾病,是由人类之前未见过的新型(或新的)冠状病毒引起的。这种疾病的名称是根据世界卫生组织 (WHO) 最佳实践外部图标external icon命名的,用于命名新的人类传染病。

Q:2019 年开始引起冠状病毒疾病疫情的病毒名称是什么?

2020 年 2 月 11 日,负责命名新病毒的国际病毒分类委员会,将其命名为新型冠状病毒,首先在中国武汉发现,重度急性呼吸道综合征冠状病毒 2,简称为 SARS-CoV-2。

正如名称,病毒与在 2002-2003 年间引起严重急性呼吸综合征(SARS)疫情的 SARS 相关冠状病毒(SARS-CoV)相关,但它并不是相同的病毒。



Q:2019-nCoV 的来源是什么?

A:公共卫生官员及合作伙伴正在努力确定导致 COVID-19 的病毒的原始动物来源。冠状病毒是一大类病毒,其中一些会导致人类患病,而另一些会在动物(包括骆驼、猫和蝙蝠)之间传播。对该病毒的遗传树进行分析表明,它起源于蝙蝠,但是目前尚不清楚病毒是否是直接从蝙蝠中跳出,还是存在中间动物宿主。SARS-CoV,另一种感染人的冠状病毒,来自麝猫,而 MERS-CoV 是一种感染人的冠状病毒,来自骆驼。有关这种新型冠状病毒的来源和传播的更多信息,在 COVID-19 情况总结中提供:病毒的来源和传播。

Q:病毒如何传播?

A:新的冠状病毒看起来似乎是人到人之间传播。了解关于 COVID-19 扩散的已知信息。

Q:已患有 COVID-19 的人是否可以将疾病传播给他人?

A:引起 COVID-19 的病毒是从人到人的传播。正在患有 COVID-19 疾病的人可将疾病传播给他人。这就是为什么 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 建议这些患者或在医院,或家中进行隔离(取决于患病程度),直到它们好转,并不伴有感染他人的风险。

每个人的生病时间可能会有所不同,因此决定何时接触隔离是因人而异的,并需要咨询医生、感染预防和控制专家,以及公共卫生官员时进行讨论,其中涉及考虑每种情况的具体细节,包括疾病严重程度、疾病体征和症状,以及该患者的实验室检测结果。

当前 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 关于何时解除隔离的指南是以逐案分析为基础进行的,包括满足以下所有要求:

患者无需使用退热药物的情况下,并没有发热。
患者不再显示症状,包括咳嗽。
患者至少间隔 24 小时采集至少两份连续呼吸道样本的检测为阴性。
从隔离中解除的人不被视为对他人会造成感染风险。

Q:已被隔离的 COVID-19 的人能否将疾病传播给他人?

A:隔离是指曾经暴露于传染性疾病的,但尚未发展成疾病(症状)的一个人或一组人,与未接触过的其他人分开,以防止该疾病传播的可能。隔离通常在传染病的潜伏期建立,这是人在暴露后患病的时间范围。对于 COVID-19,隔离期为从最后一次暴露之日起的 14 天,因为 14 天是类似冠状病毒的最长的潜伏期。从 COVID-19 隔离中解除的人不再被视为有将病毒传播给他人的风险,因为在隔离期间未发生疾病。



Q:SARS-CoV-2(引起 COVID-19 的病毒)与 MERS-CoV 或 SARS 病毒相同吗?

A:不同。冠状病毒是一大类病毒,其中一些会导致人类患病,而另一些会在动物(包括骆驼、猫和蝙蝠)之间传播。最近出现的 SARS-CoV-2 与导致中东呼吸系统综合征 (MERS) 的冠状病毒或导致严重急性呼吸综合征 (SARS) 冠状病毒的不同。遗传分析表明,SARS-CoV-2 与 2002-2003 年间人群中呼吸系统疾病疫情相关的 SARS-CoV 相关……

预防

Q:我该如何保护自己?

A:访问 COVID-19 预防和治疗页面,以了解如何保护自己免受呼吸系统疾病,如 COVID-19。

Q:如果我与患有 COVID-19 的人密切接触过,该怎么办?

A:在线提供一些与已确诊患有 COVID-19,或者正在接受其评估的患者有密切接触的人的信息。

Q:CDC 是否建议在社区中使用口罩来预防 COVID-19?

A:目前,CDC 并不建议健康人士戴口罩来保护自己免于患上呼吸道疾病(包括 COVID-19)。只有医疗保健专业人员建议时,您才应佩戴口罩。出现症状的 COVID-19 患者应该使用口罩。这是为了保护他人免受感染的风险。对于在封闭环境中(在家中或在医疗护理机构中),照顾感染 COVID-19 病患的医务工作者和其他人来说,戴口罩也是非常重要的。



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医疗信息

Q:COVID-19 可引起哪些症状和并发症?

A:COVID-19 患者报告的当前症状包括轻度至重度呼吸系统疾病,伴发热1、咳嗽和呼吸困难。参阅关于 COVID-19 症状。

Q:我应该接受 COVID-19 检测吗?

A:在从中国旅行后 14 天内,如果您有发热,1及呼吸系统疾病的症状(如咳嗽或气短),您应该致电医疗保健专业人员,并提及您近期的旅行或密切接触。如果你曾与表现出这些症状的人有过密切接触2,而此人最近刚从这个地区旅行回来,您应该致电医疗保健专业人士,并提及您的密切接触和他们近期的旅行。您的医疗保健专业人员将与您所在州的公共卫生部门和 CDC (美国疾病控制与预防中心)合作,以确定您是否需要接受 COVID-19 检测。

Q:如何测试一个人的 COVID-19?

A:此时,COVID-19 的诊断测试只能在 CDC (美国疾病控制与预防中心) 进行。

确定了被调查人员 (PUI)的州和地方卫生部门,应立即通知 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 紧急行动中心 (EOC) 报告 PUI,并确定是否指示在 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 进行 COVID-19 测试。EOC 将协助当地/州的卫生部门适当地收集、储存和运送标本至 CDC,包括在下班时间或周末/节假日。

有关标本采集的更多信息,请参阅 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 实验室信息。

Q:一个人可以被检测为 COVID-19 阴性,之后又被检测为呈阳性吗?

A:使用 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 开发的诊断测试,阴性结果意味着在患者样本中未发现导致 COVID-19 的病毒。在感染的早期阶段,有可能检测不到病毒。

对于 COVID-19,当一个人出现症状时所采集样品的阴性测试结果可能意味着 COVID-19 病毒并未引起当前的疾病。

Q:医疗保健专业人士和卫生部门应该怎么做?

A:为正在被调查的患者的建议和指导;感染控制,包括个人防护装备指南;家庭护理和隔离;以及病例调查,请参阅医疗保健专业人员信息。有关样本采集和运输的信息,请参阅实验室信息。有关 COVID-19 公共卫生专业人员的信息,请参阅公共卫生专业人员信息。

在线提供有关 COVID-19 的医疗保健专业人员的其他常见问题及解答。

公共健康响应和当前情况

Q:CDC 对 COVID-19 所采取的措施是什么?

A:疫情紧急而且发展迅速,CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心)将随时更新信息。CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 24 小时全天候保护人们的健康。CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 24 小时全天候保护人们的健康。在线提供更多关于 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心)对 COVID-19 的响应信息。

Q:我在美国是否有患 COVID-19 的风险?

A:这是一个快速演变的情况,并且风险评估可能每天都在改变。最新情况更新可在 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 的 冠状病毒疾病 2019 (COVID-19) 网页上提供。

Q:美国有人被感染了吗?

A:有。美国首例 COVID-19 报告于 2020 年 1 月 21 日。在 2020 年 1 月 30 日,报道了美国首次确诊的人与人之间传播这种病毒的情况。参阅 COVID-19 当前美国病例数。

Q:从中国运输过来的包裹或产品是否让我有感染 COVID-19的风险?

目前尚不清楚新出现的 COVID-19 及其传播方式。之前已经出现了另外两种导致人体严重疾病的冠状病毒(MERS-CoV 和 SARS-CoV)。导致 COVID-19 的病毒与 MERS-CoV 相比,与 SARS-CoV 更具遗传学相关性,但两者都是源于蝙蝠的 β 病毒。虽然我们不确定这种病毒的行为方式是否与 SARS-CoV 和 MERS-CoV 相同,但我们可以使用这两种早期冠状病毒的信息指导我们。通常,由于这些冠状病毒在表面上的存活率较差,因此在环境温度下几天或几周内运输的产品或包裹的传播风险很低。冠状病毒通常被认为最常被呼吸道飞沫传播。目前,尚无证据支持与进口货物相关的 COVID-19 传播,而且在美国尚未有与进口货物相关的 COVID-19 病例。信息将在可用时在 2019 新型冠状病毒网站提供。

Q:温暖的天气会阻止 COVID-19 疫情吗?

A:尚不清楚天气和温度是否会影响 COVID-19 的传播。其他的一些其他病毒(如普通感冒和流感),在寒冷的天气月份中播散更多,但这并不意味着在其他月份就不可能感染这些病毒。 目前尚不清楚 COVID-19 的传播是否会在天气变暖时减弱。 关于 COVID-19 的可传播性,严重性和其他功能,还有更多的知识要了解,而且也正在进行调查。



COVID-19 和动物

Q:从中国进口的动物或动物产品怎么样?

CDC 没有任何证据表明,从中国进口的动物或动物产品存在在美国传播 COVID-19 的风险。这是一个快速演变的情况,信息将在可用时随时更新。美国疾病控制与预防中心 (CDC)、美国农业部 (USDA) 和美国鱼类及野生动物管理局 (FWS) 在监管向美国进口活体动物和动物产品方面发挥着独特但互补的作用。CDC 监管对人类健康构成威胁的动物和动物产品, USDA 监管external icon对农业构成威胁的动物和动物产品;以及FWS 监管external icon可能危害人类健康福祉、农业、园艺或林业利益以及野生动物资源福利和生存的濒危物种和野生动物的进口。

Q:在 COVID-19 疫情期间,我能否带狗去美国旅行或将狗运进美国?

A:请参考 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心)带狗到美国的要求。当前狂犬病疫苗接种要求适用于从中国,高狂犬病风险国家进口的狗。

Q:我应该担心宠物或其他动物和 COVID-19 吗?

虽然这种病毒最初可能来自动物,但现在似乎正在人与人之间传播。没有理由认为美国的任何动物或宠物可能是这种新冠状病毒感染的来源。

Q:如果我生病,我应该避免接触宠物或其他动物吗?

生病时,不要接触宠物或其他动物。尽管尚无宠物或其他动物由于 COVID-19 而生病的报道,但有多种冠状病毒可能会导致动物患病,并在动物和人之间传播。在我们了解到更多信息前,请避免与动物接触;如果您必须在动物周围或照顾宠物的话,请戴上口罩。

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脚注

1发热可能是主观的或已确认的

2 密切接触的定义是—

长时间处于 COVID-19 患者周围约 6 英尺(2 米)的范围内;在照顾 COVID-19 患者、与其同住、探访或共用医疗候诊区或房间时,可能会发生密切接触
–或者–

与 COVID-19 患者的传染性分泌物直接接触(例如被咳嗽溅到)
如果在未穿着建议的个人防护装备或 PPE(例如,防护服、手套、NIOSH 认证的一次性 N95 呼吸器、眼睛防护罩)的情况下发生此类接触,则符合考虑为 PUI 的标准。”

参阅 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 针对正在研究的 2019 新型冠状病毒研究的患者的临时医疗保健感染预防和控制建议

告知密切接触定义的数据有限。评估密切接触时应考虑的因素包括暴露的持续时间(例如,更长的暴露时间可能会增加暴露风险),以及 COVID-19 患者的临床症状(例如,咳嗽可能会增加重病患者的暴露风险)。应特别考虑那些在医疗环境中暴露的人员。

* 最后审阅页面的日期:2020 年 2 月 15 日

内容来源:国家免疫和呼吸系统疾病中心(National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD)), 病毒性疾病部(Division of Viral Diseases
CDC_Cornovirus_leader_Trump_Pence_are_hiding_the_truth_real_number_of_tests_administered_lying_about_national_cases_over_5_million_infections_0077__Psychic_Brian_Ladd_for_site_.jpg
CDC Cornovirus leader Trump Pence are hiding the truth real number of tests administered lying about national cases over 5 million infections 0077 Psychic Brian Ladd for site 2 views todayCoronavirus miracle cure tea this homemade recipe DIY coronavirus tea alternative treatment recipe might really work and it's free CDC Cornovirus leader Trump Pence are hiding the truth real number of tests administered lying about national cases over 5 million infections 0077_ Psychic Brian Ladd for site_

This is a tea to prevent and cure the current coronavirus in the world today...this what I think it says:

Take 5 cups of reverse osmosis water with a PPM of less than 20 ppm, boil for 5 minutes then add 1/2 cup of dried Honeysuckle Flowers, 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar, 1/4 cup of dried Huang Lian and 1 tablespoon of regular honey (any type). Boil rapidly until half the liquid is gone, drink hot 3 times a day. (and as always, never take any medical advice from me or anyone without checking with a doctor first)
How COVID-19 Spreads
中文 | Español
Current understanding about how the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads is largely based on what is known about similar coronaviruses. COVID-19 is a new disease and there is more to learn about how it spreads, the severity of illness it causes, and to what extent it may spread in the United States.

Person-to-person spread
The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.

Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet).
Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.

Spread from contact with infected surfaces or objects
It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.

Can someone spread the virus without being sick?
People are thought to be most contagious when they are most symptomatic (the sickest).
Some spread might be possible before people show symptoms; there have been reports of this occurring with this new coronavirus, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.
How easily does the virus spread?
How easily a virus spreads from person-to-person can vary. Some viruses are highly contagious (spread easily), like measles, while other viruses do not spread as easily. Another factor is whether the spread is sustained.

The virus that causes COVID-19 seems to be spreading easily and sustainably in the community (“community spread”) in some affected geographic areas. Community spread means people have been infected with the virus in an area, including some who are not sure how or where they became infected.



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相关页

本页内容

疾病基础知识
预防
医疗信息
公共健康响应和当前情况
旅行
COVID-19 和动物
关于其他常见问题解答:

旅行
面向医疗保健专业人员的信息
呼吸器及其使用
诊断检测板和病毒的实验室申请
孕妇和 COVID-19
医疗保健感染预防和控制


请注意,某些链接指向仅以英文显示的页面。

疾病基础知识

Q:新型冠状病毒是什么?

A:新型冠状病毒 (CoV) 是一种之前尚未确定新的冠状病毒。导致冠状病毒疾病 2019 (COVID-19) 的病毒不同于在人类中普遍传播的冠状病毒 ,引起轻度疾病,如普通感冒。

冠状病毒 229E、NL63、OC43 或 HKU1 的诊断与 COVID-19 诊断不同。这些是不同的病毒,2019-nCoV 患者将接受不同于常见冠状病毒诊断的患者的评估和护理。

Q:为什么现在引起疫情的该疾病被称为冠状病毒疾病 2019,COVID-19?

A:2020 年 2 月 11 日,世界卫生组织宣布了导致最早在中国武汉发现的 2019 新型冠状病毒疫情疾病的官方正式名称。该疾病的新名称是 2019 年冠状病毒疾病,缩写为 COVID-19。在 COVID-19 中,“CO”代表“冠状”、“VI”代表“病毒”,以及“D”代表“疾病”。之前,该疾病被称为“2019 年新冠状病毒”或“2019-nCoV”。

人类冠状病毒有许多类型 ,包括一些通常引起轻度上呼吸道疾病的病毒。COVID-19 是一种新的疾病,是由人类之前未见过的新型(或新的)冠状病毒引起的。这种疾病的名称是根据世界卫生组织 (WHO) 最佳实践外部图标external icon命名的,用于命名新的人类传染病。

Q:2019 年开始引起冠状病毒疾病疫情的病毒名称是什么?

2020 年 2 月 11 日,负责命名新病毒的国际病毒分类委员会,将其命名为新型冠状病毒,首先在中国武汉发现,重度急性呼吸道综合征冠状病毒 2,简称为 SARS-CoV-2。

正如名称,病毒与在 2002-2003 年间引起严重急性呼吸综合征(SARS)疫情的 SARS 相关冠状病毒(SARS-CoV)相关,但它并不是相同的病毒。



Q:2019-nCoV 的来源是什么?

A:公共卫生官员及合作伙伴正在努力确定导致 COVID-19 的病毒的原始动物来源。冠状病毒是一大类病毒,其中一些会导致人类患病,而另一些会在动物(包括骆驼、猫和蝙蝠)之间传播。对该病毒的遗传树进行分析表明,它起源于蝙蝠,但是目前尚不清楚病毒是否是直接从蝙蝠中跳出,还是存在中间动物宿主。SARS-CoV,另一种感染人的冠状病毒,来自麝猫,而 MERS-CoV 是一种感染人的冠状病毒,来自骆驼。有关这种新型冠状病毒的来源和传播的更多信息,在 COVID-19 情况总结中提供:病毒的来源和传播。

Q:病毒如何传播?

A:新的冠状病毒看起来似乎是人到人之间传播。了解关于 COVID-19 扩散的已知信息。

Q:已患有 COVID-19 的人是否可以将疾病传播给他人?

A:引起 COVID-19 的病毒是从人到人的传播。正在患有 COVID-19 疾病的人可将疾病传播给他人。这就是为什么 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 建议这些患者或在医院,或家中进行隔离(取决于患病程度),直到它们好转,并不伴有感染他人的风险。

每个人的生病时间可能会有所不同,因此决定何时接触隔离是因人而异的,并需要咨询医生、感染预防和控制专家,以及公共卫生官员时进行讨论,其中涉及考虑每种情况的具体细节,包括疾病严重程度、疾病体征和症状,以及该患者的实验室检测结果。

当前 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 关于何时解除隔离的指南是以逐案分析为基础进行的,包括满足以下所有要求:

患者无需使用退热药物的情况下,并没有发热。
患者不再显示症状,包括咳嗽。
患者至少间隔 24 小时采集至少两份连续呼吸道样本的检测为阴性。
从隔离中解除的人不被视为对他人会造成感染风险。

Q:已被隔离的 COVID-19 的人能否将疾病传播给他人?

A:隔离是指曾经暴露于传染性疾病的,但尚未发展成疾病(症状)的一个人或一组人,与未接触过的其他人分开,以防止该疾病传播的可能。隔离通常在传染病的潜伏期建立,这是人在暴露后患病的时间范围。对于 COVID-19,隔离期为从最后一次暴露之日起的 14 天,因为 14 天是类似冠状病毒的最长的潜伏期。从 COVID-19 隔离中解除的人不再被视为有将病毒传播给他人的风险,因为在隔离期间未发生疾病。



Q:SARS-CoV-2(引起 COVID-19 的病毒)与 MERS-CoV 或 SARS 病毒相同吗?

A:不同。冠状病毒是一大类病毒,其中一些会导致人类患病,而另一些会在动物(包括骆驼、猫和蝙蝠)之间传播。最近出现的 SARS-CoV-2 与导致中东呼吸系统综合征 (MERS) 的冠状病毒或导致严重急性呼吸综合征 (SARS) 冠状病毒的不同。遗传分析表明,SARS-CoV-2 与 2002-2003 年间人群中呼吸系统疾病疫情相关的 SARS-CoV 相关……

预防

Q:我该如何保护自己?

A:访问 COVID-19 预防和治疗页面,以了解如何保护自己免受呼吸系统疾病,如 COVID-19。

Q:如果我与患有 COVID-19 的人密切接触过,该怎么办?

A:在线提供一些与已确诊患有 COVID-19,或者正在接受其评估的患者有密切接触的人的信息。

Q:CDC 是否建议在社区中使用口罩来预防 COVID-19?

A:目前,CDC 并不建议健康人士戴口罩来保护自己免于患上呼吸道疾病(包括 COVID-19)。只有医疗保健专业人员建议时,您才应佩戴口罩。出现症状的 COVID-19 患者应该使用口罩。这是为了保护他人免受感染的风险。对于在封闭环境中(在家中或在医疗护理机构中),照顾感染 COVID-19 病患的医务工作者和其他人来说,戴口罩也是非常重要的。



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医疗信息

Q:COVID-19 可引起哪些症状和并发症?

A:COVID-19 患者报告的当前症状包括轻度至重度呼吸系统疾病,伴发热1、咳嗽和呼吸困难。参阅关于 COVID-19 症状。

Q:我应该接受 COVID-19 检测吗?

A:在从中国旅行后 14 天内,如果您有发热,1及呼吸系统疾病的症状(如咳嗽或气短),您应该致电医疗保健专业人员,并提及您近期的旅行或密切接触。如果你曾与表现出这些症状的人有过密切接触2,而此人最近刚从这个地区旅行回来,您应该致电医疗保健专业人士,并提及您的密切接触和他们近期的旅行。您的医疗保健专业人员将与您所在州的公共卫生部门和 CDC (美国疾病控制与预防中心)合作,以确定您是否需要接受 COVID-19 检测。

Q:如何测试一个人的 COVID-19?

A:此时,COVID-19 的诊断测试只能在 CDC (美国疾病控制与预防中心) 进行。

确定了被调查人员 (PUI)的州和地方卫生部门,应立即通知 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 紧急行动中心 (EOC) 报告 PUI,并确定是否指示在 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 进行 COVID-19 测试。EOC 将协助当地/州的卫生部门适当地收集、储存和运送标本至 CDC,包括在下班时间或周末/节假日。

有关标本采集的更多信息,请参阅 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 实验室信息。

Q:一个人可以被检测为 COVID-19 阴性,之后又被检测为呈阳性吗?

A:使用 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 开发的诊断测试,阴性结果意味着在患者样本中未发现导致 COVID-19 的病毒。在感染的早期阶段,有可能检测不到病毒。

对于 COVID-19,当一个人出现症状时所采集样品的阴性测试结果可能意味着 COVID-19 病毒并未引起当前的疾病。

Q:医疗保健专业人士和卫生部门应该怎么做?

A:为正在被调查的患者的建议和指导;感染控制,包括个人防护装备指南;家庭护理和隔离;以及病例调查,请参阅医疗保健专业人员信息。有关样本采集和运输的信息,请参阅实验室信息。有关 COVID-19 公共卫生专业人员的信息,请参阅公共卫生专业人员信息。

在线提供有关 COVID-19 的医疗保健专业人员的其他常见问题及解答。

公共健康响应和当前情况

Q:CDC 对 COVID-19 所采取的措施是什么?

A:疫情紧急而且发展迅速,CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心)将随时更新信息。CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 24 小时全天候保护人们的健康。CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 24 小时全天候保护人们的健康。在线提供更多关于 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心)对 COVID-19 的响应信息。

Q:我在美国是否有患 COVID-19 的风险?

A:这是一个快速演变的情况,并且风险评估可能每天都在改变。最新情况更新可在 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 的 冠状病毒疾病 2019 (COVID-19) 网页上提供。

Q:美国有人被感染了吗?

A:有。美国首例 COVID-19 报告于 2020 年 1 月 21 日。在 2020 年 1 月 30 日,报道了美国首次确诊的人与人之间传播这种病毒的情况。参阅 COVID-19 当前美国病例数。

Q:从中国运输过来的包裹或产品是否让我有感染 COVID-19的风险?

目前尚不清楚新出现的 COVID-19 及其传播方式。之前已经出现了另外两种导致人体严重疾病的冠状病毒(MERS-CoV 和 SARS-CoV)。导致 COVID-19 的病毒与 MERS-CoV 相比,与 SARS-CoV 更具遗传学相关性,但两者都是源于蝙蝠的 β 病毒。虽然我们不确定这种病毒的行为方式是否与 SARS-CoV 和 MERS-CoV 相同,但我们可以使用这两种早期冠状病毒的信息指导我们。通常,由于这些冠状病毒在表面上的存活率较差,因此在环境温度下几天或几周内运输的产品或包裹的传播风险很低。冠状病毒通常被认为最常被呼吸道飞沫传播。目前,尚无证据支持与进口货物相关的 COVID-19 传播,而且在美国尚未有与进口货物相关的 COVID-19 病例。信息将在可用时在 2019 新型冠状病毒网站提供。

Q:温暖的天气会阻止 COVID-19 疫情吗?

A:尚不清楚天气和温度是否会影响 COVID-19 的传播。其他的一些其他病毒(如普通感冒和流感),在寒冷的天气月份中播散更多,但这并不意味着在其他月份就不可能感染这些病毒。 目前尚不清楚 COVID-19 的传播是否会在天气变暖时减弱。 关于 COVID-19 的可传播性,严重性和其他功能,还有更多的知识要了解,而且也正在进行调查。



COVID-19 和动物

Q:从中国进口的动物或动物产品怎么样?

CDC 没有任何证据表明,从中国进口的动物或动物产品存在在美国传播 COVID-19 的风险。这是一个快速演变的情况,信息将在可用时随时更新。美国疾病控制与预防中心 (CDC)、美国农业部 (USDA) 和美国鱼类及野生动物管理局 (FWS) 在监管向美国进口活体动物和动物产品方面发挥着独特但互补的作用。CDC 监管对人类健康构成威胁的动物和动物产品, USDA 监管external icon对农业构成威胁的动物和动物产品;以及FWS 监管external icon可能危害人类健康福祉、农业、园艺或林业利益以及野生动物资源福利和生存的濒危物种和野生动物的进口。

Q:在 COVID-19 疫情期间,我能否带狗去美国旅行或将狗运进美国?

A:请参考 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心)带狗到美国的要求。当前狂犬病疫苗接种要求适用于从中国,高狂犬病风险国家进口的狗。

Q:我应该担心宠物或其他动物和 COVID-19 吗?

虽然这种病毒最初可能来自动物,但现在似乎正在人与人之间传播。没有理由认为美国的任何动物或宠物可能是这种新冠状病毒感染的来源。

Q:如果我生病,我应该避免接触宠物或其他动物吗?

生病时,不要接触宠物或其他动物。尽管尚无宠物或其他动物由于 COVID-19 而生病的报道,但有多种冠状病毒可能会导致动物患病,并在动物和人之间传播。在我们了解到更多信息前,请避免与动物接触;如果您必须在动物周围或照顾宠物的话,请戴上口罩。

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脚注

1发热可能是主观的或已确认的

2 密切接触的定义是—

长时间处于 COVID-19 患者周围约 6 英尺(2 米)的范围内;在照顾 COVID-19 患者、与其同住、探访或共用医疗候诊区或房间时,可能会发生密切接触
–或者–

与 COVID-19 患者的传染性分泌物直接接触(例如被咳嗽溅到)
如果在未穿着建议的个人防护装备或 PPE(例如,防护服、手套、NIOSH 认证的一次性 N95 呼吸器、眼睛防护罩)的情况下发生此类接触,则符合考虑为 PUI 的标准。”

参阅 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 针对正在研究的 2019 新型冠状病毒研究的患者的临时医疗保健感染预防和控制建议

告知密切接触定义的数据有限。评估密切接触时应考虑的因素包括暴露的持续时间(例如,更长的暴露时间可能会增加暴露风险),以及 COVID-19 患者的临床症状(例如,咳嗽可能会增加重病患者的暴露风险)。应特别考虑那些在医疗环境中暴露的人员。

* 最后审阅页面的日期:2020 年 2 月 15 日

内容来源:国家免疫和呼吸系统疾病中心(National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD)), 病毒性疾病部(Division of Viral Diseases
Psychic_Prediction_CDC_Cornovirus_leader_Trump_Pence_are_hiding_the_truth_real_number_of_tests_administered_lying_about_national_cases_over_5_million_infections_C_phil_LifeCycle_lg_20.jpg
Psychic Prediction CDC Cornovirus leader Trump Pence are hiding the truth real number of tests administered lying about national cases over 5 million infections C phil LifeCycle lg 202 views todayCoronavirus miracle cure tea this homemade recipe DIY coronavirus tea alternative treatment recipe might really work and it's free Psychic Prediction CDC Cornovirus leader Trump Pence are hiding the truth real number of tests administered lying about national cases over 5 million infections C_phil_LifeCycle_lg_20

This is a tea to prevent and cure the current coronavirus in the world today...this what I think it says:

Take 5 cups of reverse osmosis water with a PPM of less than 20 ppm, boil for 5 minutes then add 1/2 cup of dried Honeysuckle Flowers, 1 tablespoon of apple cider vinegar, 1/4 cup of dried Huang Lian and 1 tablespoon of regular honey (any type). Boil rapidly until half the liquid is gone, drink hot 3 times a day. (and as always, never take any medical advice from me or anyone without checking with a doctor first)
How COVID-19 Spreads
中文 | Español
Current understanding about how the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads is largely based on what is known about similar coronaviruses. COVID-19 is a new disease and there is more to learn about how it spreads, the severity of illness it causes, and to what extent it may spread in the United States.

Person-to-person spread
The virus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.

Between people who are in close contact with one another (within about 6 feet).
Through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
These droplets can land in the mouths or noses of people who are nearby or possibly be inhaled into the lungs.

Spread from contact with infected surfaces or objects
It may be possible that a person can get COVID-19 by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose, or possibly their eyes, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.

Can someone spread the virus without being sick?
People are thought to be most contagious when they are most symptomatic (the sickest).
Some spread might be possible before people show symptoms; there have been reports of this occurring with this new coronavirus, but this is not thought to be the main way the virus spreads.
How easily does the virus spread?
How easily a virus spreads from person-to-person can vary. Some viruses are highly contagious (spread easily), like measles, while other viruses do not spread as easily. Another factor is whether the spread is sustained.

The virus that causes COVID-19 seems to be spreading easily and sustainably in the community (“community spread”) in some affected geographic areas. Community spread means people have been infected with the virus in an area, including some who are not sure how or where they became infected.



v常见问题解答
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相关页

本页内容

疾病基础知识
预防
医疗信息
公共健康响应和当前情况
旅行
COVID-19 和动物
关于其他常见问题解答:

旅行
面向医疗保健专业人员的信息
呼吸器及其使用
诊断检测板和病毒的实验室申请
孕妇和 COVID-19
医疗保健感染预防和控制


请注意,某些链接指向仅以英文显示的页面。

疾病基础知识

Q:新型冠状病毒是什么?

A:新型冠状病毒 (CoV) 是一种之前尚未确定新的冠状病毒。导致冠状病毒疾病 2019 (COVID-19) 的病毒不同于在人类中普遍传播的冠状病毒 ,引起轻度疾病,如普通感冒。

冠状病毒 229E、NL63、OC43 或 HKU1 的诊断与 COVID-19 诊断不同。这些是不同的病毒,2019-nCoV 患者将接受不同于常见冠状病毒诊断的患者的评估和护理。

Q:为什么现在引起疫情的该疾病被称为冠状病毒疾病 2019,COVID-19?

A:2020 年 2 月 11 日,世界卫生组织宣布了导致最早在中国武汉发现的 2019 新型冠状病毒疫情疾病的官方正式名称。该疾病的新名称是 2019 年冠状病毒疾病,缩写为 COVID-19。在 COVID-19 中,“CO”代表“冠状”、“VI”代表“病毒”,以及“D”代表“疾病”。之前,该疾病被称为“2019 年新冠状病毒”或“2019-nCoV”。

人类冠状病毒有许多类型 ,包括一些通常引起轻度上呼吸道疾病的病毒。COVID-19 是一种新的疾病,是由人类之前未见过的新型(或新的)冠状病毒引起的。这种疾病的名称是根据世界卫生组织 (WHO) 最佳实践外部图标external icon命名的,用于命名新的人类传染病。

Q:2019 年开始引起冠状病毒疾病疫情的病毒名称是什么?

2020 年 2 月 11 日,负责命名新病毒的国际病毒分类委员会,将其命名为新型冠状病毒,首先在中国武汉发现,重度急性呼吸道综合征冠状病毒 2,简称为 SARS-CoV-2。

正如名称,病毒与在 2002-2003 年间引起严重急性呼吸综合征(SARS)疫情的 SARS 相关冠状病毒(SARS-CoV)相关,但它并不是相同的病毒。



Q:2019-nCoV 的来源是什么?

A:公共卫生官员及合作伙伴正在努力确定导致 COVID-19 的病毒的原始动物来源。冠状病毒是一大类病毒,其中一些会导致人类患病,而另一些会在动物(包括骆驼、猫和蝙蝠)之间传播。对该病毒的遗传树进行分析表明,它起源于蝙蝠,但是目前尚不清楚病毒是否是直接从蝙蝠中跳出,还是存在中间动物宿主。SARS-CoV,另一种感染人的冠状病毒,来自麝猫,而 MERS-CoV 是一种感染人的冠状病毒,来自骆驼。有关这种新型冠状病毒的来源和传播的更多信息,在 COVID-19 情况总结中提供:病毒的来源和传播。

Q:病毒如何传播?

A:新的冠状病毒看起来似乎是人到人之间传播。了解关于 COVID-19 扩散的已知信息。

Q:已患有 COVID-19 的人是否可以将疾病传播给他人?

A:引起 COVID-19 的病毒是从人到人的传播。正在患有 COVID-19 疾病的人可将疾病传播给他人。这就是为什么 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 建议这些患者或在医院,或家中进行隔离(取决于患病程度),直到它们好转,并不伴有感染他人的风险。

每个人的生病时间可能会有所不同,因此决定何时接触隔离是因人而异的,并需要咨询医生、感染预防和控制专家,以及公共卫生官员时进行讨论,其中涉及考虑每种情况的具体细节,包括疾病严重程度、疾病体征和症状,以及该患者的实验室检测结果。

当前 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 关于何时解除隔离的指南是以逐案分析为基础进行的,包括满足以下所有要求:

患者无需使用退热药物的情况下,并没有发热。
患者不再显示症状,包括咳嗽。
患者至少间隔 24 小时采集至少两份连续呼吸道样本的检测为阴性。
从隔离中解除的人不被视为对他人会造成感染风险。

Q:已被隔离的 COVID-19 的人能否将疾病传播给他人?

A:隔离是指曾经暴露于传染性疾病的,但尚未发展成疾病(症状)的一个人或一组人,与未接触过的其他人分开,以防止该疾病传播的可能。隔离通常在传染病的潜伏期建立,这是人在暴露后患病的时间范围。对于 COVID-19,隔离期为从最后一次暴露之日起的 14 天,因为 14 天是类似冠状病毒的最长的潜伏期。从 COVID-19 隔离中解除的人不再被视为有将病毒传播给他人的风险,因为在隔离期间未发生疾病。



Q:SARS-CoV-2(引起 COVID-19 的病毒)与 MERS-CoV 或 SARS 病毒相同吗?

A:不同。冠状病毒是一大类病毒,其中一些会导致人类患病,而另一些会在动物(包括骆驼、猫和蝙蝠)之间传播。最近出现的 SARS-CoV-2 与导致中东呼吸系统综合征 (MERS) 的冠状病毒或导致严重急性呼吸综合征 (SARS) 冠状病毒的不同。遗传分析表明,SARS-CoV-2 与 2002-2003 年间人群中呼吸系统疾病疫情相关的 SARS-CoV 相关……

预防

Q:我该如何保护自己?

A:访问 COVID-19 预防和治疗页面,以了解如何保护自己免受呼吸系统疾病,如 COVID-19。

Q:如果我与患有 COVID-19 的人密切接触过,该怎么办?

A:在线提供一些与已确诊患有 COVID-19,或者正在接受其评估的患者有密切接触的人的信息。

Q:CDC 是否建议在社区中使用口罩来预防 COVID-19?

A:目前,CDC 并不建议健康人士戴口罩来保护自己免于患上呼吸道疾病(包括 COVID-19)。只有医疗保健专业人员建议时,您才应佩戴口罩。出现症状的 COVID-19 患者应该使用口罩。这是为了保护他人免受感染的风险。对于在封闭环境中(在家中或在医疗护理机构中),照顾感染 COVID-19 病患的医务工作者和其他人来说,戴口罩也是非常重要的。



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医疗信息

Q:COVID-19 可引起哪些症状和并发症?

A:COVID-19 患者报告的当前症状包括轻度至重度呼吸系统疾病,伴发热1、咳嗽和呼吸困难。参阅关于 COVID-19 症状。

Q:我应该接受 COVID-19 检测吗?

A:在从中国旅行后 14 天内,如果您有发热,1及呼吸系统疾病的症状(如咳嗽或气短),您应该致电医疗保健专业人员,并提及您近期的旅行或密切接触。如果你曾与表现出这些症状的人有过密切接触2,而此人最近刚从这个地区旅行回来,您应该致电医疗保健专业人士,并提及您的密切接触和他们近期的旅行。您的医疗保健专业人员将与您所在州的公共卫生部门和 CDC (美国疾病控制与预防中心)合作,以确定您是否需要接受 COVID-19 检测。

Q:如何测试一个人的 COVID-19?

A:此时,COVID-19 的诊断测试只能在 CDC (美国疾病控制与预防中心) 进行。

确定了被调查人员 (PUI)的州和地方卫生部门,应立即通知 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 紧急行动中心 (EOC) 报告 PUI,并确定是否指示在 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 进行 COVID-19 测试。EOC 将协助当地/州的卫生部门适当地收集、储存和运送标本至 CDC,包括在下班时间或周末/节假日。

有关标本采集的更多信息,请参阅 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 实验室信息。

Q:一个人可以被检测为 COVID-19 阴性,之后又被检测为呈阳性吗?

A:使用 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 开发的诊断测试,阴性结果意味着在患者样本中未发现导致 COVID-19 的病毒。在感染的早期阶段,有可能检测不到病毒。

对于 COVID-19,当一个人出现症状时所采集样品的阴性测试结果可能意味着 COVID-19 病毒并未引起当前的疾病。

Q:医疗保健专业人士和卫生部门应该怎么做?

A:为正在被调查的患者的建议和指导;感染控制,包括个人防护装备指南;家庭护理和隔离;以及病例调查,请参阅医疗保健专业人员信息。有关样本采集和运输的信息,请参阅实验室信息。有关 COVID-19 公共卫生专业人员的信息,请参阅公共卫生专业人员信息。

在线提供有关 COVID-19 的医疗保健专业人员的其他常见问题及解答。

公共健康响应和当前情况

Q:CDC 对 COVID-19 所采取的措施是什么?

A:疫情紧急而且发展迅速,CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心)将随时更新信息。CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 24 小时全天候保护人们的健康。CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 24 小时全天候保护人们的健康。在线提供更多关于 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心)对 COVID-19 的响应信息。

Q:我在美国是否有患 COVID-19 的风险?

A:这是一个快速演变的情况,并且风险评估可能每天都在改变。最新情况更新可在 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 的 冠状病毒疾病 2019 (COVID-19) 网页上提供。

Q:美国有人被感染了吗?

A:有。美国首例 COVID-19 报告于 2020 年 1 月 21 日。在 2020 年 1 月 30 日,报道了美国首次确诊的人与人之间传播这种病毒的情况。参阅 COVID-19 当前美国病例数。

Q:从中国运输过来的包裹或产品是否让我有感染 COVID-19的风险?

目前尚不清楚新出现的 COVID-19 及其传播方式。之前已经出现了另外两种导致人体严重疾病的冠状病毒(MERS-CoV 和 SARS-CoV)。导致 COVID-19 的病毒与 MERS-CoV 相比,与 SARS-CoV 更具遗传学相关性,但两者都是源于蝙蝠的 β 病毒。虽然我们不确定这种病毒的行为方式是否与 SARS-CoV 和 MERS-CoV 相同,但我们可以使用这两种早期冠状病毒的信息指导我们。通常,由于这些冠状病毒在表面上的存活率较差,因此在环境温度下几天或几周内运输的产品或包裹的传播风险很低。冠状病毒通常被认为最常被呼吸道飞沫传播。目前,尚无证据支持与进口货物相关的 COVID-19 传播,而且在美国尚未有与进口货物相关的 COVID-19 病例。信息将在可用时在 2019 新型冠状病毒网站提供。

Q:温暖的天气会阻止 COVID-19 疫情吗?

A:尚不清楚天气和温度是否会影响 COVID-19 的传播。其他的一些其他病毒(如普通感冒和流感),在寒冷的天气月份中播散更多,但这并不意味着在其他月份就不可能感染这些病毒。 目前尚不清楚 COVID-19 的传播是否会在天气变暖时减弱。 关于 COVID-19 的可传播性,严重性和其他功能,还有更多的知识要了解,而且也正在进行调查。



COVID-19 和动物

Q:从中国进口的动物或动物产品怎么样?

CDC 没有任何证据表明,从中国进口的动物或动物产品存在在美国传播 COVID-19 的风险。这是一个快速演变的情况,信息将在可用时随时更新。美国疾病控制与预防中心 (CDC)、美国农业部 (USDA) 和美国鱼类及野生动物管理局 (FWS) 在监管向美国进口活体动物和动物产品方面发挥着独特但互补的作用。CDC 监管对人类健康构成威胁的动物和动物产品, USDA 监管external icon对农业构成威胁的动物和动物产品;以及FWS 监管external icon可能危害人类健康福祉、农业、园艺或林业利益以及野生动物资源福利和生存的濒危物种和野生动物的进口。

Q:在 COVID-19 疫情期间,我能否带狗去美国旅行或将狗运进美国?

A:请参考 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心)带狗到美国的要求。当前狂犬病疫苗接种要求适用于从中国,高狂犬病风险国家进口的狗。

Q:我应该担心宠物或其他动物和 COVID-19 吗?

虽然这种病毒最初可能来自动物,但现在似乎正在人与人之间传播。没有理由认为美国的任何动物或宠物可能是这种新冠状病毒感染的来源。

Q:如果我生病,我应该避免接触宠物或其他动物吗?

生病时,不要接触宠物或其他动物。尽管尚无宠物或其他动物由于 COVID-19 而生病的报道,但有多种冠状病毒可能会导致动物患病,并在动物和人之间传播。在我们了解到更多信息前,请避免与动物接触;如果您必须在动物周围或照顾宠物的话,请戴上口罩。

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脚注

1发热可能是主观的或已确认的

2 密切接触的定义是—

长时间处于 COVID-19 患者周围约 6 英尺(2 米)的范围内;在照顾 COVID-19 患者、与其同住、探访或共用医疗候诊区或房间时,可能会发生密切接触
–或者–

与 COVID-19 患者的传染性分泌物直接接触(例如被咳嗽溅到)
如果在未穿着建议的个人防护装备或 PPE(例如,防护服、手套、NIOSH 认证的一次性 N95 呼吸器、眼睛防护罩)的情况下发生此类接触,则符合考虑为 PUI 的标准。”

参阅 CDC(美国疾病控制与预防中心) 针对正在研究的 2019 新型冠状病毒研究的患者的临时医疗保健感染预防和控制建议

告知密切接触定义的数据有限。评估密切接触时应考虑的因素包括暴露的持续时间(例如,更长的暴露时间可能会增加暴露风险),以及 COVID-19 患者的临床症状(例如,咳嗽可能会增加重病患者的暴露风险)。应特别考虑那些在医疗环境中暴露的人员。

* 最后审阅页面的日期:2020 年 2 月 15 日

内容来源:国家免疫和呼吸系统疾病中心(National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD)), 病毒性疾病部(Division of Viral Diseases
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_0_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
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Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_74d4324911bf430a9cf4b28e845396fb_18_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 74d4324911bf430a9cf4b28e845396fb 18 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New1 views today74d4324911bf430a9cf4b28e845396fb_18

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_135343_Aoegjyaihe_1580095244_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 135343 Aoegjyaihe 1580095244 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New1 views today135343-aoegjyaihe-1580095244

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_269404_4563129_Updates_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 269404 4563129 Updates New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New1 views today269404_4563129_updates

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_1090007_Blank_355_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 1090007 Blank 355 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New1 views today1090007-blank-355

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_1233909_1_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 1233909 1 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New1 views today1233909_1

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_2145118_Chinavirustourism_1580118421_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 2145118 Chinavirustourism 1580118421 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New1 views today2145118-chinavirustourism-1580118421

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_9698118cc1af931da01cf7bfea794812_China_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 9698118cc1af931da01cf7bfea794812 China New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New1 views today9698118cc1af931da01cf7bfea794812-China

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_22590380_E1580132446770_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 22590380 E1580132446770 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New1 views today22590380-e1580132446770

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_23922116_7933361_Image_A_15_1580127641177_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 23922116 7933361 Image A 15 1580127641177 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New1 views today23922116-7933361-image-a-15_1580127641177

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_23924314_7933405_Image_A_12_1580118217003_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 23924314 7933405 Image A 12 1580118217003 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New1 views today23924314-7933405-image-a-12_1580118217003

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_23926864_7933471_A_Company_In_Nantong_China_Has_Had_To_Step_Up_Production_Of_Its__A_22_1580123423541_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 23926864 7933471 A Company In Nantong China Has Had To Step Up Production Of Its A 22 1580123423541 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New1 views today23926864-7933471-A_company_in_Nantong_China_has_had_to_step_up_production_of_its_-a-22_1580123423541

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]