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Clinton, Utah

An infant who was taken from a home in Utah by her birth mother may be headed to Modesto, the Clinton City Police Department said.

The baby, named Audrey Westfall, was living with her grandmother in Utah, who has court-ordered guardianship of the child. Police said Taylor Webb took the child around 5 p.m. Wednesday.

Webb is 5 feet, 5 inches tall, weighs about 130 pounds and has long, dark blonde hair. She was last seen wearing a gray shirt with a gray zip-up jacket over the shirt, black stretch pants and black and white Avia shoes.

Police said Webb has two tattoos on her upper chest, one that says "Exhale the Negative" and one that says "Inhale the Positive."
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Dream number 12341 19 November 2019 2 psychic prediction~03 views todayMYSTERIOUS 'LARGE FIREBALL FALLING TO EARTH' CRASHES IN SALEM, POLICE INVESTIGATE

Ok, I may have gotten the state wrong nut the date was correct...Dallas is pretty far away from Salem


Police are investigating a mysterious "large fireball falling to the earth" spotted in Salem, Oregon, in the southwest of Polk County.

The fiery trail was reported by a local resident around 4:50 p.m. (local time) on Thursday, according to Lt. Dustin Newman, a spokesman for the Polk County Sheriff's Office (PCSO), the Statesman Journal reports.

The incident was reported as a plane crash but its exact location remains undetermined, according to the PCSO, which posted images of the sighting on its official Facebook page.

"PCSO is currently investigating a large fireball falling to the earth in the southwest area of Polk County. The fireball was reported as a plane crash and PCSO is working to locate a possible landing location and exactly what the fireball is," the PCSO said on its official Facebook page.

"After the 911 call came we were able to get a helicopter in the area (as it is pretty remote) and they didn't see anything of concern. There were no reports of downed aircraft either. We really believe it was a meteor as yesterday there was a somewhat rare meteor shower in our area as well," Sheriff Mark Garton from the PCSO told Newsweek.

"The exact location of the fireball is unknown. PCSO will utilize aircraft during daylight hours tomorrow [Friday] in an attempt to cover the rough terrain in the area and wrap up the search. PCSO has utilized all available aviation tracking systems and no planes have been lost," the PCSO said on Facebook.

Fireball Streaks Across Night Sky Above St. Louis As Meteor Shower PeaksREAD MORE
The Federal Aviation Administration has yet to report any plane crashes in the area, while several national and local authorities, including the U.S. Forest Service, a Life Flight Network helicopter and a local timber company, are working together to determine the origin of the fireball, Newman confirms, the Salem Statesman Journal reports.

The American Meteor Society (AMS) and NASA's Center for Near Earth Object Studies (CNEOS) have also yet to report fireballs in the area.


https://www.newsweek.com/mysterious-large-fireball-salem-oregon-sighting-1473469
Dream_number_12307_9_November_2019_2_psychic_prediction_Oregon_fireball_remains_unexplained_after_authorities_rule_out_suspected_plane_crash_.jpg
Dream number 12307 9 November 2019 2 psychic prediction Oregon fireball remains unexplained after authorities rule out suspected plane crash 3 views todayFrom November 9th 2019 .
IMG_0003.JPG
IMG 00033 views todayThis dream from November 24th almost matched all numbers in the UK Lotto on the 27th of the same month, but there was one million pound winner and the best part is, these numbers may be for December 19 as stated in the DD.
A_plane_crash_on_November_30th2C_2019_was_predicted_in_this_dream_from_November_24th_may_be_related2C_planes_tail_number_seems_to_match2C__if_so_there_will_be_another_one_in_Texas_on_December_1st2C_2019_per_this_DD_.jpg
A plane crash on November 30th2C 2019 was predicted in this dream from November 24th may be related2C planes tail number seems to match2C if so there will be another one in Texas on December 1st2C 2019 per this DD 3 views todayA plane crash on November 30th 1st 2019 was predicted in this dream from November 24th may be related plane's tail number seems to match if so there will be another one in Texas on December 1st 2019 per this DD

Nine people have been killed after a plane crashed in South Dakota amid severe weather conditions, authorities confirmed.

Two children were also confirmed to be among the dead after the Pilatus PC-12 single-engine plane crashed around 12:30 p.m. shortly after taking off from Chamberlain Municipal Airport in Brule County, roughly 140 miles west of Sioux Falls.

Peter Knudson of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) told the Associated Press that 12 people were on board and confirmed the number of people killed, adding that three people survived but were in critical condition. They were transported to Sioux Falls for treatment.
Sincere_Brinson_missing_teen_is_not_missing_she_is_with_her_at_382_Emerald_Hills_Hollowwood_Florida_Dream_number_12397_5_December_2019_3_psychic_prediction.jpg
Sincere Brinson missing teen is not missing she is with her at 382 Emerald Hills Hollowwood Florida Dream number 12397 5 December 2019 3 psychic prediction3 views todaySincere Brinson missing teen is not missing, she is with her at 382 Emerald Hills Hollywood Florida (real place, I've been there)

case info

Police are seeking the public’s help finding a teenage girl who went missing in Southwest Miami-Dade.

According to Miami-Dade Police, 15-year-old Sincere Brinson was last seen near Southwest 117th Avenue and 244th Lane, Thursday.
Amber_Nistelbeck_missing_woman_found_just_down_the_street_from_this_church_Dream_number_12398_5_December_2019_4_psychic_prediction.jpg
Amber Nistelbeck missing woman found just down the street from this church Dream number 12398 5 December 2019 4 psychic prediction3 views todayAmber Nistelbeck missing woman found just down the street from this church.

case info

MISSING: AMBER NISTELBECK
Missing From: Canal Winchester, Ohio
Date Missing: November 19, 2019
Age: 32
Height: 5’5”
Weight: 120
Hair: blonde, mid-length
Eyes: blue
Scars: left elbow, surgical scars from a car wreck
Tattoos: multiple. Right hand - sunflower, “Rotten” on index finger, a symbol on middle finger, flowers on both sides of chest and an owl on inside of the upper right arm. Jewel on the left side of the face under eye on check bone.
Amber was last seen on November 14 and last heard from on November 19. Amber has now missed Thanksgiving and her own birthday (Dec 1) which is not normal. She was last seen leaving her home and entered a black or dark-colored truck with a male who was wearing a dark-colored baseball cap. When last seen, she was wearing jeans with holes, white Old Navy vest with hood, Black Bear claw boots and black backpack (purse style
Amber normally wears jewelry (rings/necklaces) and ballcaps (she did not take one with her when she left her home). She wears prescription eyeglasses for reading/watching tv. She smokes menthol cigarettes.
Sadie_Antonie_located_safe_psychic_prediction_by_Brian_Ladd.jpg
Sadie Antonie located safe psychic prediction by Brian Ladd3 views todayDear Harbor Spring Point Red Sign Charles Antonie Rose Antonie found safe (this is a lucid dream request case from 10 Dec 2019)
case info

Superior Court judge ordered children to be handed to CPS custody. Parents fled in an RV headed to Orcas Island and possibly en-route Tennessee or Ohio. Father may be armed with an AR-15 and has made threats to harm social workers. Father has a recent history of psychiatric in-patient. Mother has a history of mental health issues along with substance abuse. Significant DV between parents. George Antonie (16-year-old) is diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder with bipolar, depression, and suicidal ideation. George is currently severely suicidal.
Associated children
George Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
16 years
Rose Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
7 years
Sadie Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
9 years
Associated companions
Nicholas Antonie
Age Now
42 years
Crystal Lane
Age Now
38 years
George_Antonie_located_safe_psychic_prediction_by_Brian_Ladd.jpg
George Antonie located safe psychic prediction by Brian Ladd3 views todayDear Harbor Spring Point Red Sign Charles Antonie Rose Antonie found safe (this is a lucid dream request case from 10 Dec 2019)
case info

Superior Court judge ordered children to be handed to CPS custody. Parents fled in an RV headed to Orcas Island and possibly en-route Tennessee or Ohio. Father may be armed with an AR-15 and has made threats to harm social workers. Father has a recent history of psychiatric in-patient. Mother has a history of mental health issues along with substance abuse. Significant DV between parents. George Antonie (16-year-old) is diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder with bipolar, depression, and suicidal ideation. George is currently severely suicidal.
Associated children
George Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
16 years
Rose Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
7 years
Sadie Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
9 years
Associated companions
Nicholas Antonie
Age Now
42 years
Crystal Lane
Age Now
38 years
Charles_Antonie_located_safe_psychic_prediction_by_Brian_Ladd.jpg
Charles Antonie located safe psychic prediction by Brian Ladd3 views todayDear Harbor Spring Point Red Sign Charles Antonie Rose Antonie found safe (this is a lucid dream request case from 10 Dec 2019)
case info

Superior Court judge ordered children to be handed to CPS custody. Parents fled in an RV headed to Orcas Island and possibly en-route Tennessee or Ohio. Father may be armed with an AR-15 and has made threats to harm social workers. Father has a recent history of psychiatric in-patient. Mother has a history of mental health issues along with substance abuse. Significant DV between parents. George Antonie (16-year-old) is diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder with bipolar, depression, and suicidal ideation. George is currently severely suicidal.
Associated children
George Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
16 years
Rose Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
7 years
Sadie Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
9 years
Associated companions
Nicholas Antonie
Age Now
42 years
Crystal Lane
Age Now
38 years
Rose_Antonie_located_safe_psychic_prediction_by_Brian_Ladd.jpg
Rose Antonie located safe psychic prediction by Brian Ladd3 views todayDear Harbor Spring Point Red Sign Charles Antonie Rose Antonie found safe (this is a lucid dream request case from 10 Dec 2019)
case info

Superior Court judge ordered children to be handed to CPS custody. Parents fled in an RV headed to Orcas Island and possibly en-route Tennessee or Ohio. Father may be armed with an AR-15 and has made threats to harm social workers. Father has a recent history of psychiatric in-patient. Mother has a history of mental health issues along with substance abuse. Significant DV between parents. George Antonie (16-year-old) is diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder with bipolar, depression, and suicidal ideation. George is currently severely suicidal.
Associated children
George Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
16 years
Rose Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
7 years
Sadie Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
9 years
Associated companions
Nicholas Antonie
Age Now
42 years
Crystal Lane
Age Now
38 years
Sadie_Antonie_located_safe_psychic_prediction_by_Brian_Ladd~0.jpg
Sadie Antonie located safe psychic prediction by Brian Ladd~03 views todayDear Harbor Spring Point Red Sign Charles Antonie Rose Antonie found safe (this is a lucid dream request case from 10 Dec 2019)
case info

Superior Court judge ordered children to be handed to CPS custody. Parents fled in an RV headed to Orcas Island and possibly en-route Tennessee or Ohio. Father may be armed with an AR-15 and has made threats to harm social workers. Father has a recent history of psychiatric in-patient. Mother has a history of mental health issues along with substance abuse. Significant DV between parents. George Antonie (16-year-old) is diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder with bipolar, depression, and suicidal ideation. George is currently severely suicidal.
Associated children
George Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
16 years
Rose Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
7 years
Sadie Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
9 years
Associated companions
Nicholas Antonie
Age Now
42 years
Crystal Lane
Age Now
38 years
George_Antonie_located_safe_psychic_prediction_by_Brian_Ladd~0.jpg
George Antonie located safe psychic prediction by Brian Ladd~03 views todayDear Harbor Spring Point Red Sign Charles Antonie Rose Antonie found safe (this is a lucid dream request case from 10 Dec 2019)
case info

Superior Court judge ordered children to be handed to CPS custody. Parents fled in an RV headed to Orcas Island and possibly en-route Tennessee or Ohio. Father may be armed with an AR-15 and has made threats to harm social workers. Father has a recent history of psychiatric in-patient. Mother has a history of mental health issues along with substance abuse. Significant DV between parents. George Antonie (16-year-old) is diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder with bipolar, depression, and suicidal ideation. George is currently severely suicidal.
Associated children
George Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
16 years
Rose Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
7 years
Sadie Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
9 years
Associated companions
Nicholas Antonie
Age Now
42 years
Crystal Lane
Age Now
38 years
Rose_Antonie_located_safe_psychic_prediction_by_Brian_Ladd~0.jpg
Rose Antonie located safe psychic prediction by Brian Ladd~03 views todayDear Harbor Spring Point Red Sign Charles Antonie Rose Antonie found safe (this is a lucid dream request case from 10 Dec 2019)
case info

Superior Court judge ordered children to be handed to CPS custody. Parents fled in an RV headed to Orcas Island and possibly en-route Tennessee or Ohio. Father may be armed with an AR-15 and has made threats to harm social workers. Father has a recent history of psychiatric in-patient. Mother has a history of mental health issues along with substance abuse. Significant DV between parents. George Antonie (16-year-old) is diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder with bipolar, depression, and suicidal ideation. George is currently severely suicidal.
Associated children
George Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
16 years
Rose Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
7 years
Sadie Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
9 years
Associated companions
Nicholas Antonie
Age Now
42 years
Crystal Lane
Age Now
38 years
Charles_Antonie_located_safe_psychic_prediction_by_Brian_Ladd~1.jpg
Charles Antonie located safe psychic prediction by Brian Ladd~13 views todayDear Harbor Spring Point Red Sign Charles Antonie Rose Antonie found safe (this is a lucid dream request case from 10 Dec 2019)
case info

Superior Court judge ordered children to be handed to CPS custody. Parents fled in an RV headed to Orcas Island and possibly en-route Tennessee or Ohio. Father may be armed with an AR-15 and has made threats to harm social workers. Father has a recent history of psychiatric in-patient. Mother has a history of mental health issues along with substance abuse. Significant DV between parents. George Antonie (16-year-old) is diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder with bipolar, depression, and suicidal ideation. George is currently severely suicidal.
Associated children
George Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
16 years
Rose Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
7 years
Sadie Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
9 years
Associated companions
Nicholas Antonie
Age Now
42 years
Crystal Lane
Age Now
38 years
George_Antonie_located_safe_psychic_prediction_by_Brian_Ladd~2.jpg
George Antonie located safe psychic prediction by Brian Ladd~23 views todayDear Harbor Spring Point Red Sign Charles Antonie Rose Antonie found safe (this is a lucid dream request case from 10 Dec 2019)
case info

Superior Court judge ordered children to be handed to CPS custody. Parents fled in an RV headed to Orcas Island and possibly en-route Tennessee or Ohio. Father may be armed with an AR-15 and has made threats to harm social workers. Father has a recent history of psychiatric in-patient. Mother has a history of mental health issues along with substance abuse. Significant DV between parents. George Antonie (16-year-old) is diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder with bipolar, depression, and suicidal ideation. George is currently severely suicidal.
Associated children
George Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
16 years
Rose Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
7 years
Sadie Antonie
Missing Since
Dec 10, 2019
Missing From
Seattle, WA
Age Now
9 years
Associated companions
Nicholas Antonie
Age Now
42 years
Crystal Lane
Age Now
38 years
Braxton_Williams_missing_boy_found_safe.jpg
Braxton Williams missing boy found safe3 views todayBraxton Williams.
Plastic_is_still_in_the_truck_Shane_Carey_Austin_white_trash_truck.jpg
Plastic is still in the truck Shane Carey Austin white trash truck3 views todayPlastic is still in the truck Shane Carey Austin white trash truck.

Heidi_Broussard_found.jpg
Heidi Broussard found3 views todayHeidi Broussard found, rawhide trail, 8:37 AM, numbers, breaking news

Police in Texas are searching for a woman who vanished with her newborn daughter last week after dropping her young son off at school.

Heidi Elizabeth Broussard, 33, and 3-week-old Margot Carey were last seen around 7:50 a.m. Thursday at Cowan Elementary School, Austin police officials reported. They were reported missing about 12 hours later.

“Heidi and Margot are believed to have returned to their residence near West William Cannon (Drive) and South First Street but have not been seen or heard from since,” investigators said in a news release.


Brad Herries, a detective with the Austin Police Department’s Violent Crimes Unit, told reporters Tuesday that Broussard and the baby are believed to have been at their home in the Club at Summer Valley apartment complex the morning they disappeared, after Broussard took her son to school.

Broussard’s fiancé, Shane Carey, told CBS Austin last week that he spoke to her shortly after 8 a.m. the day she disappeared. In an interview with FOX7, Carey said Broussard had accompanied their son, Silas, to a book fair at the school that morning.

“She called me around 8-something, on her way home from the book fair, and said she spent $25,” Carey said. “I was, like, ‘That’s OK,’ and I told her I had to go because I was on my way out.”
Mom_kills_baby_maybe_related_to_the_Heidi_Broussard_case.jpg
Mom kills baby maybe related to the Heidi Broussard case3 views today'Mom' kills baby maybe related to the Heidi Broussard case.
Dream_number_12481_20_December_2019_1_psychic_prediction~0.jpg
Dream number 12481 20 December 2019 1 psychic prediction~03 views todayEarly morning Christmas fire displaces 250 at Minneapolis temporary shelter for homeless, dream from December 20th, 2019 even got the numbers right.
Benjamin_Rapoza_missing_child_is_here_Dream_number_12572_9_January_2020_2_psychic_prediction.jpg
Benjamin Rapoza missing child is here Dream number 12572 9 January 2020 2 psychic prediction3 views todayBenjamin Rapoza missing child is here (request)

12-21-19 Missing child: Benjamin Rapoza
| Published: DECEMBER 21, 2019
Hawaiʻi Police Department
Area I Juvenile Aid Section
Lieutenant Sandor Finkey
Phone: 961-2254
Report no. 19-100172

Link to larger image
Missing: Benjamin Rapoza
Media Release
Hawaiʻi Island police are asking for the public’s assistance in finding a missing 6-year-old Hilo boy.

Benjamin Rapoza was last seen at a residence in the 2100 block of Kalanianaole Street at around 3:00 pm yesterday (December 20). Benjamin is described as local, standing about 3-feet tall, weighing about 50 pounds, slim build, with short brown hair, brown eyes, and a fair complexion. He was last seen wearing only a diaper.

Police are concerned for his welfare as Benjamin is diagnosed with nonverbal autism.
DOG_Reece_Clark_is_at_hill_end_-_usually_dog_refers_to_GOD.jpg
DOG Reece Clark is at hill end - usually dog refers to GOD3 views todayDOG, Reece Clark is at hill end (usually dog refers to GOD)
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_1ebfefd2_13c2_47e9_990b_B8722e09f1ec_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpeg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 1ebfefd2 13c2 47e9 990b B8722e09f1ec New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views today1ebfefd2-13c2-47e9-990b-b8722e09f1ec

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_602x338_Nbc_200127_Wuhan_Coronavirus_Mc_907_37499ea2fd677032d06bba099e1800a2_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 602x338 Nbc 200127 Wuhan Coronavirus Mc 907 37499ea2fd677032d06bba099e1800a2 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views today602x338_nbc-200127-wuhan-coronavirus-mc-907_37499ea2fd677032d06bba099e1800a2

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_1177_47192c3ddf4_1_310x165_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 1177 47192c3ddf4 1 310x165 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views today1177-47192c3ddf4-1-310x165

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_9698118cc1af931da01cf7bfea794812_China_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 9698118cc1af931da01cf7bfea794812 China New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views today9698118cc1af931da01cf7bfea794812-China

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_1580105268_5e2e7e34998e5_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpeg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd 1580105268 5e2e7e34998e5 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views today1580105268-5e2e7e34998e5

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_C1_1844844_700_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd C1 1844844 700 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views todayc1_1844844_700

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_China_Outbreak_36025_1880x1254_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd China Outbreak 36025 1880x1254 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views todayChina_Outbreak_36025-1880x1254

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Delhi_Assembly_Polls_Ecefafa6_4109_11ea_A1a6_739c4e9997c5_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd Delhi Assembly Polls Ecefafa6 4109 11ea A1a6 739c4e9997c5 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views todaydelhi-assembly-polls_ecefafa6-4109-11ea-a1a6-739c4e9997c5

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Ep_301259901_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd Ep 301259901 New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views todayEP-301259901

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Images_Q3Dtbn_And9gcqe0jnlbayjbxe8tda_C6rcw6yqtniozwvq0xg6hsgnxsn5542gdg_s_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd Images Q3Dtbn And9gcqe0jnlbayjbxe8tda C6rcw6yqtniozwvq0xg6hsgnxsn5542gdg s New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views todayimages_q=tbn_ANd9GcQE0jNLBAYJbXE8TDa-c6rcw6yqTniOZwVQ0xg6hSGnXsN5542gdg&s

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd - brianladd.org

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Images_Q3Dtbn_And9gcqwxsbha9vzsih3sp9zayfjdrut1olrerwe2vvw_Rdlnnbq_Arzeq_s_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd Images Q3Dtbn And9gcqwxsbha9vzsih3sp9zayfjdrut1olrerwe2vvw Rdlnnbq Arzeq s New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views todayimages_q=tbn_ANd9GcQWxSBHa9VZsIH3sp9zayfjDRut1OlRerwE2vVW-rdlnnbQ-aRzeQ&s

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd -

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Images_Q3Dtbn_And9gcqyewbrgjkvdydvi7anb_E7inl_0fgcjivwzjnaiojgzaqqyja7_s_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd Images Q3Dtbn And9gcqyewbrgjkvdydvi7anb E7inl 0fgcjivwzjnaiojgzaqqyja7 s New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views todayimages_q=tbn_ANd9GcQyEWBRGjkvDYDVI7ANB-E7inl-0fGcjivwZJnaIojGzAqqYjA7&s

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd -

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Images_Q3Dtbn_And9gcr0yjuagtaf073zlesp8az6ck_Tm0hdnrgmyo_Crdg2iledrw0k_s_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd Images Q3Dtbn And9gcr0yjuagtaf073zlesp8az6ck Tm0hdnrgmyo Crdg2iledrw0k s New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views todayimages_q=tbn_ANd9GcR0yJuagtAF073ZlESp8aZ6CK-Tm0hdNrGMYo-cRDG2ILeDrw0K&s

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd -

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Wuhan_Coronavirus_Psychic_Prediction_By_Brian_Ladd_Images_Q3Dtbn_And9gcr3dggdoyba4kt2val9nnai6ux9mn7klprxr9k6r5vx0u4lfqa2pa_s_New_Maps_Death_Toll_Alerts_And_More_Breaking_New.jpg
Wuhan Coronavirus Psychic Prediction By Brian Ladd Images Q3Dtbn And9gcr3dggdoyba4kt2val9nnai6ux9mn7klprxr9k6r5vx0u4lfqa2pa s New Maps Death Toll Alerts And More Breaking New3 views todayimages_q=tbn_ANd9GcR3DGGDOYBa4Kt2val9NNAI6ux9mn7klPRXR9K6R5vx0U4LfqA2pA&s

Psychic Brian Ladd January 2020 dream by Brian Ladd -

Wuhan coronavirus pychic prediction

Wuhan coronavirus map

The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)[3][4], also known as the Wuhan coronavirus,[1] is a contagious virus that causes respiratory infection and has shown evidence of human-to-human transmission, first identified by authorities in Wuhan, Hubei, China, as the cause of the ongoing 2019-20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak.[5] Genomic sequencing has shown that it is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA coronavirus.[6][7][8]

Due to reports that the the initial cases had epidemiological links to a large seafood and animal market, the virus is thought to have a zoonotic origin, though this has not been confirmed.[9] Comparisons of genetic sequences between this virus and other existing virus samples have shown similarities to SARS-CoV (79.5%)[10] and bat coronaviruses (96%)[10], with a likely origin in bats being theorized.[11][12][13]


Contents
1 Epidemiology
2 Symptoms and treatment
3 Virology
3.1 Infection
3.2 Reservoir
3.3 Phylogenetics and taxonomy
4 Structural biology
5 Vaccine research
6 References
7 External links
Epidemiology
Main article: 2019–20 Wuhan coronavirus outbreak
The first known outbreak of 2019-nCoV was detected in Wuhan, China, in mid-December 2019. The virus subsequently spread to other provinces of Mainland China and other countries, including Thailand, Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Australia, France, and the United States.[14][15][16]

As of 27 January 2020, there were 2,886 confirmed cases of infection, of which 2,825 were within mainland China.[17] Cases outside China, to date, were people who have either travelled from Wuhan, or were in direct contact with someone who travelled from the area.[18] The number of deaths was 81 as of 27 January 2020.[17] Human-to-human spread was confirmed in Guangdong, China, on 20 January 2020.[19]

Symptoms and treatment
Reported symptoms have included fever, fatigue, dry cough, shortness of breath, and respiratory distress.[20][21] Cases of severe infection can result in pneumonia, kidney failure, and death.[22] In a statement issued on 23 January 2020, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated that a quarter of those infected experienced severe disease, and that many of those who died had other conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease that impaired their immune systems.[23] A study of the first 41 patients admitted to hospitals in Wuhan with confirmed cases reported that a majority of the patients were healthy before contracting the infection, and that over a quarter of previously healthy individuals required intensive care.[24][25] Among the majority of those hospitalised, vital signs were stable on admission, and they had low white blood cells counts and low lymphocytes.[21]

No specific treatment is currently available, so treatment is focused on alleviation of symptoms. Existing anti-virals are being studied,[26] including protease inhibitors like indinavir, saquinavir, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir and interferon beta.[27]

Virology
Infection
Human-to-human transmission of the virus has been confirmed.[19] Reports have emerged that the virus is infectious even during the incubation period.[28][29] However, Nancy Messonnier, CDC director, states that "We at CDC don't have any evidence of patients being infectious prior to symptom onset." [30]

One research group has estimated the basic reproduction number ({displaystyle R_{0}}R_{0}) of the virus to be between 3 and 5,[31] meaning it typically infects 3 to 5 people per established infection. Other research groups have estimated the basic reproduction number to be between 1.4 and 3.8.[32] It has been established that the virus is able to transmit along a chain of at least four people.[33]

Reservoir
Animals sold for food are suspected to be the reservoir or the intermediary because many of the first identified infected individuals were workers at the Huanan Seafood Market. Consequently, they were exposed to greater contact with animals.[21] A market selling live animals for food was also blamed in the SARS epidemic in 2003; such markets are considered a perfect incubator for novel pathogens.[34]

With a sufficient number of sequenced genomes, it is possible to reconstruct a phylogenetic tree of the mutation history of a family of viruses. During 17 years of research on the origin of the SARS 2003 epidemic, many SARS-like bat coronaviruses were isolated and sequenced, most of them originating from the Rhinolophus genus of bats. The Wuhan novel coronavirus has been found to fall into this category of SARS-related coronaviruses. Two genome sequences from Rhinolophus sinicus published in 2015 and 2017 show a resemblance of 80% to 2019-nCoV.[11][12] A third unpublished virus genome from Rhinolophus affinis with a resemblance of 96% to 2019-nCoV has also been noted.[35] For comparison, this amount of variation among viruses is similar to the amount of mutation observed over ten years in the H3N2 human flu virus strain.[36]

Phylogenetics and taxonomy
Genomic information
2019-nCoV genome.svg
Genome organisation (click to enlarge)
NCBI genome ID MN908947
Genome size 30,473 bases
Year of completion 2020
2019-nCoV belongs to the broad family of viruses known as coronaviruses. Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), but only six were previously known to infect people; 2019-nCoV made it seven.[37]

The virus is genetically distinct from other known coronaviruses that infect humans, including severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[8] Like SARS-CoV, it is a member of the subgenus Sarbecovirus (Beta-CoV lineage B).[38][21][39] Its RNA sequence is approximately 30 kb in length.[8]

By 12 January, five genomes of the novel coronavirus had been isolated from Wuhan and reported by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and other institutions;[8][40][41] the number of genomes increased to 28 by 26 January. Except for the earliest GenBank genome, the genomes are under an embargo at GISAID. A phylogenic analysis for the samples is available through Nextstrain.[42]

Structural biology

Innophore Phyre2 ribbon diagram of 2019-nCoV protease, a prospective target for antiviral drugs[43]
The publications of the genome led to several protein modeling experiments on the receptor binding protein (RBD) of the nCoV spike (S) protein suggesting that the S protein retained sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry.[44] On 22 January, a group in China working with the full virus and a group in the U.S. working with reverse genetics independently and experimentally demonstrated ACE2 as the receptor for 2019-nCoV.[45][46][47]

To look for potential drugs, the viral protease M(pro) was also modeled for drug docking experiments. Innophore has produced two computational models based on SARS protease,[43] and the Chinese Academy of Sciences has produced an experimental structure of a recombinant 2019-nCoV protease.

Vaccine research


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals, including humans, and birds. In humans, the virus causes respiratory infections which are typically mild but, in rare cases, can be lethal. In cows and pigs they may cause diarrhea, while in chickens it can cause an upper respiratory disease. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs that are approved for prevention or treatment.

Coronaviruses are viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.[4][5] Coronaviruses are enveloped viruses with a positive-sense single-stranded RNA genome and with a nucleocapsid of helical symmetry. The genomic size of coronaviruses ranges from approximately 26 to 32 kilobases, the largest for an RNA virus.

The name "coronavirus" is derived from the Latin corona and the Greek κορώνη (korṓnē, "garland, wreath"), meaning crown or halo. This refers to the characteristic appearance of virions (the infective form of the virus) by electron microscopy, which have a fringe of large, bulbous surface projections creating an image reminiscent of a royal crown or of the solar corona. This morphology is created by the viral spike (S) peplomers, which are proteins that populate the surface of the virus and determine host tropism.

Proteins that contribute to the overall structure of all coronaviruses are the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N). In the specific case of the SARS coronavirus (see below), a defined receptor-binding domain on S mediates the attachment of the virus to its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).[6] Some coronaviruses (specifically the members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A) also have a shorter spike-like protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).[4]


Contents
1 Human coronaviruses
1.1 Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
1.2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
1.3 Middle East respiratory syndrome
2 Replication
3 Taxonomy
4 History
4.1 Evolution
5 Other animals
5.1 Diseases caused
5.2 In domestic animals
6 See also
7 References
8 Further reading
9 External links
Human coronaviruses
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults and children. Coronaviruses cause colds with major symptoms, e.g. fever, throat swollen adenoids, in humans primarily in the winter and early spring seasons.[7] Coronaviruses can cause pneumonia, either direct viral pneumonia or a secondary bacterial pneumonia and they can also cause bronchitis, either direct viral bronchitis or a secondary bacterial bronchitis.[8] The much publicized human coronavirus discovered in 2003, SARS-CoV which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), has a unique pathogenesis because it causes both upper and lower respiratory tract infections.[8]

There are seven strains of human coronaviruses:

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E)
Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43)
SARS-CoV
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63, New Haven coronavirus)
Human coronavirus HKU1
Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), previously known as novel coronavirus 2012 and HCoV-EMC.
Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV),[9][10] also known as Wuhan pneumonia or Wuhan coronavirus.[11] ('Novel' in this case means newly discovered, or newly originated, and is a placeholder name.) [10]
The coronaviruses HCoV-229E, -NL63, -OC43, and -HKU1 continually circulate in the human population and cause respiratory infections in adults and children world-wide.[12]

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
Cross-sectional model of a coronavirus
The 2019–20 China pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan was traced to a novel coronavirus,[13] which is labeled as 2019-nCoV by WHO.[9][10]

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
Main article: Severe acute respiratory syndrome
In 2003, following the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) which had begun the prior year in Asia, and secondary cases elsewhere in the world, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a press release stating that a novel coronavirus identified by a number of laboratories was the causative agent for SARS. The virus was officially named the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). Over 8,000 people were infected, about 10% of whom died.[6]

Middle East respiratory syndrome
Main article: Middle East respiratory syndrome
In September 2012, a new type of coronavirus was identified, initially called Novel Coronavirus 2012, and now officially named Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[14][15] The World Health Organization issued a global alert soon after.[16] The WHO update on 28 September 2012 stated that the virus did not seem to pass easily from person to person.[17] However, on 12 May 2013, a case of human-to-human transmission in France was confirmed by the French Ministry of Social Affairs and Health.[18] In addition, cases of human-to-human transmission have been reported by the Ministry of Health in Tunisia. Two confirmed cases involved people who seemed to have caught the disease from their late father, who became ill after a visit to Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Despite this, it appears that the virus has trouble spreading from human to human, as most individuals who are infected do not transmit the virus.[19] By 30 October 2013, there were 124 cases and 52 deaths in Saudi Arabia.[20]

After the Dutch Erasmus Medical Centre sequenced the virus, the virus was given a new name, Human Coronavirus–Erasmus Medical Centre (HCoV-EMC). The final name for the virus is Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). In May 2014, the only two United States cases of MERS-CoV infection were recorded, both occurring in healthcare workers who worked in Saudi Arabia and then traveled to the U.S. One was treated in Indiana and one in Florida. Both of these individuals were hospitalized temporarily and then discharged.[21]

In May 2015, an outbreak of MERS-CoV occurred in the Republic of Korea, when a man who had traveled to the Middle East, visited 4 different hospitals in the Seoul area to treat his illness. This caused one of the largest outbreaks of MERS-CoV outside of the Middle East.[22] As of December 2019, 2,468 cases of MERS-CoV infection had been confirmed by laboratory tests, 851 of which were fatal, a mortality rate of approximately 34.5%.[23]

Replication

The infection cycle of coronavirus
Following the entry of this virus into the cell, the virus particle is uncoated and the RNA genome is deposited into the cytoplasm.

The coronavirus RNA genome has a 5′ methylated cap and a 3′ polyadenylated tail. This allows the RNA to attach to ribosomes for translation.

Coronaviruses also have a protein known as a replicase encoded in its genome which allows the RNA viral genome to be transcribed into new RNA copies using the host cell's machinery. The replicase is the first protein to be made; once the gene encoding the replicase is translated, the translation is stopped by a stop codon. This is known as a nested transcript. When the mRNA transcript only encodes one gene, it is monocistronic. A coronavirus non-structural protein provides extra fidelity to replication because it confers a proofreading function,[24] which is lacking in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzymes alone.

The RNA genome is replicated and a long polyprotein is formed, where all of the proteins are attached. Coronaviruses have a non-structural protein – a protease – which is able to separate the proteins in the chain. This is a form of genetic economy for the virus, allowing it to encode the greatest number of genes in a small number of nucleotides.[25]
Gannon_Stauch_missing_boy_found_-_This_the_best_loction_I_have_for_Gannon_right_now__-_Brian_Ladd_Psychic_Dreamer_Dream_number_12673_3_February_2020_4_psychic_prediction.jpg
Gannon Stauch missing boy found - This the best loction I have for Gannon right now - Brian Ladd Psychic Dreamer Dream number 12673 3 February 2020 4 psychic prediction3 views todayFrom 4 dream drawings on 2 - 3 - 2020

Gannon Stauch missing boy found cold fingernails in the backroom, here, Gannon, concrete blocks, LE already cleared the area, look again, dirt in the carpet, mother cleared of all charges, mayor apologies, not the truth, neighbors house, he was there, numbers, killer, dies in jail.

This the best location I have for Gannon right not, will open a case and post additional work at

https://briansprediction.com/gannon

Gannon Stauch missing boy found - This the best location I have for Gannon right now - Brian Ladd Psychic Dreamer

case info


Gannon Stauch is a missing 11-year-old boy who was last seen on Monday, January 27, 2020, at his home in El Paso County, Colorado, police and his family say. Gannon’s disappearance was first classified as a possible runaway, but the El Paso County Sheriff’s Office said on Thursday, January 30, that they were now calling him an endangered missing child.

Gannon lives with his father, Albert Stauch, and stepmother, Tecia Stauch, in the Lorson Ranch area of Colorado Springs. Stauch’s father is in the Colorado Army National Guard. Gannon’s mother, Landen Hiott, lives in South Carolina and is in Colorado helping with the search. Hiott and Stauch share custody of Gannon, according to his family. The sheriff’s office, other local police agencies, and the FBI are investigating. “If you have seen Gannon or may have information as to his whereabouts, please call the Sheriff’s Office Tip Line at 719-520-6666,” the sheriff’s office said.

El Paso County Sheriff’s Lieutenant Mitch Mihalko, who heads the investigations division, was asked at the Thursday evening press conference why the case was upgraded to be classified as an endangered missing child from a runaway. He replied, “There are several factors in this particular case, we’ve been having cold weather, so the weather was one issue. The timeframe is another issue. The fact that he’s actually under the age of 13, he’s 11 years old, and he has specific medicine that he takes, we want to make sure that all the resources are being poured in to locate him.”

Mihalko, when asked if there is anything suspicious about the case, replied, “At this point, we have an active investigation. Our main focus is to get Gannon located.” He gave a similar answer when asked about foul play or anything that would lead to a criminal investigation, saying, “What’s important at this point is we’re focused on trying to find Gannon and that his safety is paramount to us. … I always believe in the best and I believe that we will be finding Gannon.” Police said Gannon is 4’9″ and weighs 90 pounds with brown hair and brown eyes. He was wearing a blue fleece hooded sweatshirt (hoodie), blue jeans and tennis shoes, police said.
Missing_woman_Stacy_Peterson_found_there_was_a_metal_ring_on_the_plastic_barrel_midwest_recycling_company_the_truck_with_tank_on_the_back_psychic_finds_Stacy_too_8157412090_4.jpg
Missing woman Stacy Peterson found there was a metal ring on the plastic barrel midwest recycling company the truck with tank on the back psychic finds Stacy too 8157412090 43 views todayFrom 4 dream drawings from February 10th, 2020

Missing woman Stacy Peterson found, there was a metal ring on the plastic barrel, this is why the metal detector picked it up. He is the location on the DD, midwest recycling company, the truck with tank on the back, psychic finds Stacy too? 8157412090 show his picture, sand up to the fence, numbers, he too his id, neck, (again, this psychic is not me nor do I know the psychic nor do I need any credit for helping solve the case)

more at https://briansprediction.com/stacy

cae info

n late October, cities and towns around the country were all tricked out in Halloween decorations. Up and down the neighborhoods, families prepared for fright night.

But this year, the village of Bolingbrook, a Chicago suburb, was plunged into a real-life mystery far more chilling than any Halloween haunting could ever be.

On Oct. 28, Stacy Peterson, 23 years old -- wife, mother, sister -- suddenly vanished. She went missing and is yet to be found.

Her husband Drew said she'd run off with another man.

Drew Peterson: I’m still in love with Stacy and I miss her, so... (he puts up hand and walks away)

But her family suspected foul play and launched a massive search.

Volunteers combed through forests and fields. Police took to the air and the water.

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But it wouldn't go away. As the days dragged by with no sign of Stacy -- and no word from her either -- the questions piled up. So did the suspicions and the speculation about the role of Stacy’s husband Drew. He says all the attention forced him to speak out.

Drew Peterson: I’m really being portrayed as a monster here. Nobody's defending me. Nobody's stepping up to say, "No, he's a decent guy. He helps people. He does this. He does that." So somebody's got to say something.

Tonight we'll hear from Drew Peterson, along with other family members and friends, as we try to piece together what really happened to Stacy Peterson.

Drew Peterson: I don't believe she's missing. I believe she's where she wants to be.

Drew Peterson was one of Bolingbrook’s finest -- a police sergeant with more than two decades of experience -- when he met Stacy in 2001. At the time Peterson was 47 years old. Stacy, a high-school graduate, was just 17 -- 30 years his junior.

Hoda Kotb: I know people said, "What’s going on there?"

Drew Peterson: Sure.

But Peterson says he squared the age gap with Stacy.

Drew Peterson: I said, "Do you mind that I’m 47?" and she goes, "Do you mind that I’m 17?" Just like, kind of like, a weird feeling. But I-- she was beautiful. And it was exciting having a young, beautiful woman interested in me. And I purSued the relationship.

And, he says, Stacy did too.

Drew Peterson: Every time I tried to get out of the relationship, she would purSue me. Leaving little roses and notes on my car and stuff. So it was like it was exciting. So--

Hoda Kotb: So was it love like that?

Drew Peterson: Pretty quick. Pretty quick. So--

Hoda Kotb: So the relationship started. She was like a kid, I mean, in a way. Just very naive.

Drew Peterson: Well. she was very mature for her age in a lot of senses because she had a very tough upbringing.

Stacy Ann Cales was the third of five children born to Anthony and Christie Cales. Two siblings died young. Court records show that Stacy’s mom was in and out of trouble with the law. Her mother took off for good in 1998 and her dad began moving the family.
This_is_about_missing_Tylee_Ryan_and_J_J_Vallow_the_adults_in_question_are_Lori_Vallow_and_Chad_Daybel_they_can_be_found_at_this_location__Brian_Dream_number_12735_15_February_2020_4_psychic_prediction.jpg
This is about missing Tylee Ryan and J J Vallow the adults in question are Lori Vallow and Chad Daybel they can be found at this location Brian Dream number 12735 15 February 2020 4 psychic prediction3 views todayFrom 4 d's on February 15th 2020, case opened 2/16/2020

Triangles everywhere, JJ and Tylee found in the same container? Lori arrested, suicide in cell 12, lives next door, tatoo, police where there, here, rusted wire, triangles This is about missing Tylee Ryan and J.J. Vallow the adults in question are Lori Vallow and Chad Daybel, they can be found at this location. Brian

more at https://briansprediction.com/tylee

case info

Police seem to be no closer to finding 7-year-old Joshua “JJ” Vallow and 17-year-old Tylee Ryan than they were when this story began months ago.

Since that time, the story has gained international attention as it’s taken twists and turns involving a purported cult, dead spouses, delusions of divinity and preparing for the end of the world. Despite all the angles, and the ever-growing number of people related to the case, the facts remain essentially the same as when it was first announced.

The two children remain missing and the parents, Lori (Vallow) Daybell, and her new husband, Chad Daybell, refuse to disclose their whereabouts to police. Both have been named persons of interest in the disappearance of the children. Law enforcement is also investigating the deaths of the Daybells’ previous respective spouses, Charles Vallow and Tammy Daybell, though neither Chad nor Lori have been named suspects in those cases.
Missing_Anne_Marie_Fahey_comes_home_the_letter_was_for_real2C_let_the_world_know_the_truth_Thomas_Capano_smiles_no_tears__609-465-5271_Dream_number_12748_18_February_2020_3_psychic_prediction.jpg
Missing Anne Marie Fahey comes home the letter was for real2C let the world know the truth Thomas Capano smiles no tears 609-465-5271 Dream number 12748 18 February 2020 3 psychic prediction3 views todayMissing Anne Marie Fahey comes home, the letter was for real, let the world know the truth, Thomas Capano smiles? no tears 609-465-5271, shocking, she did not know, December 25th, 2020

more at

https://briansprediction.com/annemariefahey
1_This_morning_asparamancer_jemima_packington_predicts_meghan_and_harry_will_have_twins_coronavirus_disease_2019_covid_19.jpg
1 This morning asparamancer jemima packington predicts meghan and harry will have twins coronavirus disease 2019 covid 193 views today1 This morning asparamancer jemima packington predicts meghan and harry will have twins coronavirus disease 2019 covid 19 Coronavirus psychic prediction by Brian Ladd of brians dreams more at https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus
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Telemmglpict000210163138_trans_nvbqzqnjv4bqpvlberwd9egfpztclimqfyf2a9a6i9ychsjmeadba08_coronavirus_disease_2019_covid_19.jpeg
Telemmglpict000210163138 trans nvbqzqnjv4bqpvlberwd9egfpztclimqfyf2a9a6i9ychsjmeadba08 coronavirus disease 2019 covid 193 views todayTelemmglpict000210163138 trans nvbqzqnjv4bqpvlberwd9egfpztclimqfyf2a9a6i9ychsjmeadba08 coronavirus disease 2019 covid 19 Coronavirus psychic prediction by Brian Ladd of brians dreams more at https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus
Thumb_wuhan_coronavirus_psychic_prediction_by_brian_ladd_coronavirus_new_maps_death_toll_alerts_and_more_breaking_new_coronavirus_disease_2019_covid_19.jpeg
Thumb wuhan coronavirus psychic prediction by brian ladd coronavirus new maps death toll alerts and more breaking new coronavirus disease 2019 covid 193 views todayThumb wuhan coronavirus psychic prediction by brian ladd coronavirus new maps death toll alerts and more breaking new coronavirus disease 2019 covid 19 Coronavirus psychic prediction by Brian Ladd of brians dreams more at https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus
Uri_geller_trans_nvbqzqnjv4bqk4bawqv5afujcona6cdevh4nk2lynkecwsamouh4lhw_coronavirus_disease_2019_covid_19.jpg
Uri geller trans nvbqzqnjv4bqk4bawqv5afujcona6cdevh4nk2lynkecwsamouh4lhw coronavirus disease 2019 covid 193 views todayUri geller trans nvbqzqnjv4bqk4bawqv5afujcona6cdevh4nk2lynkecwsamouh4lhw coronavirus disease 2019 covid 19 Coronavirus psychic prediction by Brian Ladd of brians dreams more at https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus
What_is_wuhan_coronavirus_coronavirus_disease_2019_covid_19.jpg
What is wuhan coronavirus coronavirus disease 2019 covid 193 views todayWhat is wuhan coronavirus coronavirus disease 2019 covid 19 Coronavirus psychic prediction by Brian Ladd of brians dreams more at https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus
Wuhan_coronavirus_psychic_prediction_by_brian_ladd_1233909_1_new_maps_death_toll_alerts_and_more_breaking_new_coronavirus_disease_2019_covid_19.jpg
Wuhan coronavirus psychic prediction by brian ladd 1233909 1 new maps death toll alerts and more breaking new coronavirus disease 2019 covid 193 views todayWuhan coronavirus psychic prediction by brian ladd 1233909 1 new maps death toll alerts and more breaking new coronavirus disease 2019 covid 19 Coronavirus psychic prediction by Brian Ladd of brians dreams more at https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus
This_is_about_missing_Tylee_Ryan_and_JJ_Vallow_the_adults_in_question_are_Lori_Vallow_and_Chad_Daybel_the_other_adults_in_question_have_not_been_posted_publically_yet_Dream_number_12755_21_February_2020_1_psychic_prediction.jpg
This is about missing Tylee Ryan and JJ Vallow the adults in question are Lori Vallow and Chad Daybel the other adults in question have not been posted publically yet Dream number 12755 21 February 2020 1 psychic prediction3 views todayFrom 3 dd's dated 2-21-20

Wire, numbers, look again, he knows about Lori's affair, he is the one who actually did the killings? rope and triangle?
This is about missing Tylee Ryan and J.J. Vallow the adults in question are Lori Vallow and Chad Daybel, the other adults in question have not been posted publicly yet.

more at https://briansprediction.com/tylee

case info

Police seem to be no closer to finding 7-year-old Joshua “JJ” Vallow and 17-year-old Tylee Ryan than they were when this story began months ago.

Since that time, the story has gained international attention as it’s taken twists and turns involving a purported cult, dead spouses, delusions of divinity and preparing for the end of the world. Despite all the angles, and the ever-growing number of people related to the case, the facts remain essentially the same as when it was first announced.

The two children remain missing and the parents, Lori (Vallow) Daybell, and her new husband, Chad Daybell, refuse to disclose their whereabouts to police. Both have been named persons of interest in the disappearance of the children. Law enforcement is also investigating the deaths of the Daybells’ previous respective spouses, Charles Vallow and Tammy Daybell, though neither Chad nor Lori have been named suspects in those cases.
This_is_about_missing_Tylee_Ryan_and_JJ_Vallow_the_adults_in_question_are_Lori_Vallow_and_Chad_Daybel_the_other_adults_in_question_have_not_been_posted_publically_yet_Dream_number_12756_21_February_2020_2_psychic_prediction.jpg
This is about missing Tylee Ryan and JJ Vallow the adults in question are Lori Vallow and Chad Daybel the other adults in question have not been posted publically yet Dream number 12756 21 February 2020 2 psychic prediction3 views todayFrom 3 dd's dated 2-21-20

Wire, numbers, look again, he knows about Lori's affair, he is the one who actually did the killings? rope and triangle?
This is about missing Tylee Ryan and J.J. Vallow the adults in question are Lori Vallow and Chad Daybel, the other adults in question have not been posted publicly yet.

more at https://briansprediction.com/tylee

case info

Police seem to be no closer to finding 7-year-old Joshua “JJ” Vallow and 17-year-old Tylee Ryan than they were when this story began months ago.

Since that time, the story has gained international attention as it’s taken twists and turns involving a purported cult, dead spouses, delusions of divinity and preparing for the end of the world. Despite all the angles, and the ever-growing number of people related to the case, the facts remain essentially the same as when it was first announced.

The two children remain missing and the parents, Lori (Vallow) Daybell, and her new husband, Chad Daybell, refuse to disclose their whereabouts to police. Both have been named persons of interest in the disappearance of the children. Law enforcement is also investigating the deaths of the Daybells’ previous respective spouses, Charles Vallow and Tammy Daybell, though neither Chad nor Lori have been named suspects in those cases.
This_is_about_missing_Tylee_Ryan_and_JJ_Vallow_the_adults_in_question_are_Lori_Vallow_and_Chad_Daybel_the_other_adults_in_question_have_not_been_posted_publically_yet_Dream_number_12757_21_February_2020_3_psychic_prediction.jpg
This is about missing Tylee Ryan and JJ Vallow the adults in question are Lori Vallow and Chad Daybel the other adults in question have not been posted publically yet Dream number 12757 21 February 2020 3 psychic prediction3 views todayFrom 4 d's on February 15th 2020, case opened 2/16/2020

Triangles everywhere, JJ and Tylee found in the same container? Lori arrested, suicide in cell 12, lives next door, tatoo, police where there, here, rusted wire, triangles This is about missing Tylee Ryan and J.J. Vallow the adults in question are Lori Vallow and Chad Daybel, they can be found at this location. Brian

more at https://briansprediction.com/tylee

case info

Police seem to be no closer to finding 7-year-old Joshua “JJ” Vallow and 17-year-old Tylee Ryan than they were when this story began months ago.

Since that time, the story has gained international attention as it’s taken twists and turns involving a purported cult, dead spouses, delusions of divinity and preparing for the end of the world. Despite all the angles, and the ever-growing number of people related to the case, the facts remain essentially the same as when it was first announced.

The two children remain missing and the parents, Lori (Vallow) Daybell, and her new husband, Chad Daybell, refuse to disclose their whereabouts to police. Both have been named persons of interest in the disappearance of the children. Law enforcement is also investigating the deaths of the Daybells’ previous respective spouses, Charles Vallow and Tammy Daybell, though neither Chad nor Lori have been named suspects in those cases.

From 3 dd's dated 2-21-20
Wire, numbers, look again, he knows about Lori's affair, he is the one who actually did the killings? rope and triangle?
This is about missing Tylee Ryan and J.J. Vallow the adults in question are Lori Vallow and Chad Daybel, the other adults in question have not been posted publicly yet.

more at https://briansprediction.com/tylee
0001_photo_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
0001 photo Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views today0001 photo Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. 0001 photo Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
3D_animation_coronavirus_structure_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
3D animation coronavirus structure Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views today3D animation coronavirus structure Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. 3D animation coronavirus structure Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
8a816d26_5394_11ea_8948_c9a8d8f9b667_image_hires_215927_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
8a816d26 5394 11ea 8948 c9a8d8f9b667 image hires 215927 Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views today8a816d26 5394 11ea 8948 c9a8d8f9b667 image hires 215927 Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. 8a816d26 5394 11ea 8948 c9a8d8f9b667 image hires 215927 Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
0021_coronavirus_psychic_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
0021 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views today0021 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. 0021 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
0119_coronavirus_psychic_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
0119 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views today0119 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. 0119 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
0182_coronavirus_psychic_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
0182 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views today0182 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. 0182 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
0203_coronavirus_psychic_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
0203 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views today0203 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. 0203 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
0206_coronavirus_psychic_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
0206 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views today0206 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. 0206 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
0333_coronavirus_psychic_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
0333 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views today0333 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. 0333 coronavirus psychic Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
AP20021224423446_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
AP20021224423446 Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views todayAP20021224423446 Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. AP20021224423446 Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
election_roundup_hub_featured_debates_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
election roundup hub featured debates Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views todayelection roundup hub featured debates Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed in anticipation of an influenza pandemic that is being repurposed and adapted for a COVID-19 pandemic. election roundup hub featured debates Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019
image_183_1024x451_Coronavirus_prediction_by_Psychic_Brian_Ladd_Coronavirus_Disease_2019_.jpg
image 183 1024x451 Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 3 views todayimage 183 1024x451 Coronavirus prediction by Psychic Brian Ladd Coronavirus Disease 2019 Brian Ladd coronavirus psychic CDC is responding to an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China and which has now been detected in 37 locations internationally, including cases in the United States. The virus has been named “SARS-CoV-2” and the disease it causes has been named “coronavirus disease 2019” (abbreviated “COVID-19”).

On January 30, 2020, the International Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a “public health emergency of international concernexternal icon” (PHEIC). On January 31, 2020, Health and Human Services Secretary Alex M. Azar II declared a public health emergency (PHE) for the United States to aid the nation’s healthcare community in responding to COVID-19.

Source and Spread of the Virus
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that are common in many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats. Rarely, animal coronaviruses can infect people and then spread between people such as with MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and now with this new virus (named SARS-CoV-2).

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is a betacoronavirus, like MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV. All three of these viruses have their origins in bats. The sequences from U.S. patients are similar to the one that China initially posted, suggesting a likely single, recent emergence of this virus from an animal reservoir.

Early on, many of the patients in the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China had some link to a large seafood and live animal market, suggesting animal-to-person spread. Later, a growing number of patients reportedly did not have exposure to animal markets, indicating person-to-person spread. Person-to-person spread has been reported outside China, including in the United States and other locations. Chinese officials report that sustained person-to-person spread in the community is occurring in China. In addition, other destinations have apparent community spread, meaning some people have been infected who are not sure how or where they became infected. Learn what is known about the spread of newly emerged coronaviruses.

On This Page
Background
Source and Spread of the Virus
Situation in U.S.
Illness Severity
Risk Assessment
What May Happen
CDC Response
Highlights of CDC’s Response
CDC Recommends
Other Available Resources
Confirmed COVID-19 Cases Global Map
World map showing countries with COVID-19 cases
View larger image and see a list of locations

map icon
COVID-19 cases in the U.S.
Situation in U.S.
Imported cases of COVID-19 in travelers have been detected in the U.S. Person-to-person spread of COVID-19 also has been seen among close contacts of returned travelers from Wuhan, but at this time, this virus is NOT currently spreading in the community in the United States.

Illness Severity
Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV have been known to cause severe illness in people. The complete clinical picture with regard to COVID-19 is not fully understood. Reported illnesses have ranged from mild to severe, including illness resulting in death. Learn more about the symptoms associated with COVID-19.

There are ongoing investigations to learn more. This is a rapidly evolving situation and information will be updated as it becomes available.

Risk Assessment
Outbreaks of novel virus infections among people are always of public health concern. The risk from these outbreaks depends on characteristics of the virus, including how well it spreads between people, the severity of resulting illness, and the medical or other measures available to control the impact of the virus (for example, vaccine or treatment medications). The fact that this disease has caused illness, including illness resulting in death, and sustained person-to-person spread is concerning. These factors meet two of the criteria of a pandemic. As community spread is detected in more and more countries, the world moves closer toward meeting the third criteria, worldwide spread of the new virus.

The potential public health threat posed by COVID-19 is high, both globally and to the United States.

https://briansprediction.com/coronavirus

But individual risk is dependent on exposure.

For the general American public, who are unlikely to be exposed to this virus at this time, the immediate health risk from COVID-19 is considered low.
Under current circumstances, certain people will have an increased risk of infection, for example healthcare workers caring for patients with COVID-19 and other close contacts of persons with COVID-19. CDC has developed guidance to help in the risk assessment and management of people with potential exposures to COVID-19.
However, it’s important to note that current global circumstances suggest it is likely that this virus will cause a pandemic. In that case, the risk assessment would be different.

What May Happen
More cases are likely to be identified in the coming days, including more cases in the United States. It’s also likely that person-to-person spread will continue to occur, including in the United States. Widespread transmission of COVID-19 in the United States would translate into large numbers of people needing medical care at the same time. Schools, childcare centers, workplaces, and other places for mass gatherings may experience more absenteeism. Public health and healthcare systems may become overloaded, with elevated rates of hospitalizations and deaths. Other critical infrastructure, such as law enforcement, emergency medical services, and transportation industry may also be affected. Health care providers and hospitals may be overwhelmed. At this time, there is no vaccine to protect against COVID-19 and no medications approved to treat it. Nonpharmaceutical interventions would be the most important response strategy.

CDC Response
Global efforts at this time are focused concurrently on containing spread of this virus and mitigating the impact of this virus. The federal government is working closely with state, local, tribal, and territorial partners, as well as public health partners, to respond to this public health threat. The public health response is multi-layered, with the goal of detecting and minimizing introductions of this virus in the United States so as to reduce the spread and the impact of this virus. CDC is operationalizing all of its pandemic preparedness and response plans, working on multiple fronts to meet these goals, including specific measures to prepare communities to respond local transmission of the virus that causes COVID-19. There is an abundance of pandemic guidance developed